Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow

Volume 5 : 4 April 2005

Editor: M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
Associate Editors: B. Mallikarjun, Ph.D.
         Sam Mohanlal, Ph.D.
         B. A. Sharada, Ph.D.
         A. R. Fatihi, Ph.D.




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Copyright © 2004
M. S. Thirumalai

S. Rajendran, Ph.D.

1. Introduction

Compounding in an important process in the word-building mechanism in Tamil.  It raises many issues relating to morphology, syntax and lexicon.  A prototypical compound is a word made up of at least two bases which can occur elsewhere as independent words.  Compounding represents the interface between morphology and syntax par excellence. Compounds have two sets of characteristic properties. The first set makes compounding resemble syntax and the second set brings compounding closer to word formation. The head-modifier, predicate-argument, and oppositional relations together with constituent structure all tend to align compounding with syntax. However, compounds also have a number of features which make them resemble words. First compounds are lexicalized. They are then often subject to semantic shift of a kind associated with stored words, which means that their meaning becomes non-compositional or even totally idiosyncratic. This type of drift is characteristic of all types of compounding. In a related fashion, there are often lexical restrictions on which compounds are permitted, resulting in paradigmatic gaps which resemble those found in derivational or inflectional affixation. A further property which links compounds with the words is that of non-referentiality. If we look at the non-heads of the compounds, we find that they never refer to specific objects. The constituents of compounds differ from constituents of sentences. Related to this is the fact that non-heads of compounds typically fail to be inflected. One property of words which distinguishes them from phrase is morphological integrity: their elements can not be split up by other words or phrases. This is generally true of constituents of compounds. It is not uncommon for the compounds they form to become so lexicalized that the element loses its status as an independent word and becomes a clitic or an affix. Finally, there are often phonological processes that apply to compounds but not to phrases.

The compound verbs are formed from a base by the addition of a verb which function as the verbalizer or whose function is to verbalize the base. The bases are generally nouns. Even a verb can be compounded with a verbalizing verb to form another verb. It can be stated that there is no productive verbalizing suffix in Tamil. The verbalizing suffix -i which was in use to form verbs from Sanskrit noun stems is no longer in use. Only compounding is extensively used in the formation of verbs in Tamil.

There are a number of verbs which are used to form verbs from nouns. Not all nouns will be added to a verbalizer and conversely not all verbalizers can be added to a noun; only a closed set of nouns can be collocated with a particular verbalizer. The compounds could be overlapping in their meaning as same nouns can be collocated with overlapping group of verbs. This leads to synonymy among compound verbs. Though the formation of verbs from N + V combination is a productive process, the nouns involved in the formation of compound verbs with reference to a particular verbalizer appears to be a closed set rather than an open set. But it is possible to recruit new members to a closed set which makes the process productive. Because of the closed nature of the nouns participating in the compound formation which results in the idiosyncratic nature of the resultant meanings, there need to be the listing of the compounds in the dictionary as soon as the compounds come into vogue. Instead of talking in terms of sets of nouns it is possible to talk in terms of semantic area or domain to which the nouns belong.

Rajendran (1978), Agesthialingom (1981:15-60), and Karthikeyan (1983) can be considered as important works on compound verbs in Tamil. Compound verbs listed in kriyavin tarkalat tamir akarati (KTTA) (Dictionary of Contemporary Tamil) have also been taken into consideration while dealing about the compound verb formation in Tamil. The strategies used in the formation of compound verbs in Tamil will be investigated here.

2. Differentiating Compound Verbs From Phrases           

The first and the foremost issue here is to differentiate compounds, here is this context the compound verbs, from phrases.  It is generally agreed upon that compounds are the units of lexicon and the phrases are the units of syntax. The following are the questions which could be raised about this issue:

1) How to differentiate compounds from phrases as both of them contain words?

2) How differentiate the rules of compounding from the rules of forming syntactic phrases?

It is not always obvious when we have a compound verb.  Orthographic conventions offer limited help in distinguishing compounds form phrases.  Some compound verbs  are written as a single word (ex. accuRuttu ‘threaten’ (<accam ‘fear’ + uRuttu ‘cause trouble’) some are written as single as well as a bipartite unit (ex. vicaaraNai cey, vicaaraNaicey ‘interrogate’).  Karthikeyan (1983) lists the following tests to differentiate compound verbs from the phrase N + V.

2.1 Insertion Test

It is generally agreed that it is not possible to insert an element (with the exception of clitics) between the base and the verbalizer.

TaakTar ndooyaLiyaik kuNappaTuttinaar 'the doctor cured the patient'

*TaakTar ndooyaaLiyaik kuNattai paTuttinaar 

*TaakTar ndooyaLiyaik kuNam ndanRaakap paTuttinaar

 The reliability on the test suffers to some extent as there exist compound verbs in which the nouns are inflected for case. They can be considered as phrases which are lexicalized into compounds or phrasal words as they have acquired idiosyncratic or idiomatic meaning.

2.2 Synonymy Test

There is a possibility of finding simple verbs as synonyms for compound verbs in the same language or any other language.

Compound verbs        Synonymous simple verbs

kolai paNNu 'kill'         kol 'kill'

kaatal cey 'love'           kaatali 'love'

uraiyaaTu 'talk'            peecu 'talk'

vaataaTu 'argue'          argue

kuuRiTu 'divide'           divide

2.3 Attribute Test

It is not possible to attribute a noun of a compound verb by attributes such as adjectives, relative participles and genitives.

*ndalla uraiyaaTinaar 'good talked-he'

*iraNTu uraiyaaTinaar 'two talked-he'

*ennuTaiya uraiyaaTinaar 'my talked-he'

2.4. Coordination Test

Two noun phrases can be coordinated by a coordinator. But nouns which form bases of compounds cannot be coordinated in the same fashion.

ndaan raamanai aTitteen 'I beat Rama'

ndaan kaNNanai aTitteen ' I beat Kannan'

ndaan raamanaiyum kaNNanaiyum aTitteen 'I beat Rama and Kannan

[-um is a clitic which functions as a coordinator.]

avan tandti aTittaan 'he gave a telegram'

avan Taip aTittaan 'he typed'

*avan tandtiyum Taippum aTittaan

[tandti 'telegram', Taip 'typing', aTi 'beat']

Only compound verbs can be coordinated as follows.

avan tandti aTikkavum Taip aTikkavum ceytaan

'he gave telegram and performed typing'

The fact that the nouns of compound verbs cannot be coordinated shows that the N + V combination functions as a single unit.

2.5 Substitution Test

The simple verbs can be substituted by the phrase enna cey 'do what?' as given in the following example.

kumar paNattai tiruTinaan 'Kumar stole the money'

kumar paNattai enna ceytaan 'what did Kumar do to money?'

In the same fashion compound verb can be substituted by the phrase enna cey. But the verb which forms the constituent element of a compound verb cannot be substituted in the same fashion by the phrase enna cey 'do what?'.

kumar paNattai viiNaTittaan 'Kumar wasted the money'

*kumar paNattai viiN enna ceytaan?

All the above mentioned five tests can be utilized to establish or reject a N + V combination as a compound verb and none of them guarantees a full proof as the degree of cohesion existing between the bases and the verbalizers varies.

3. Degree Of Cohesion

Though it is said that no element can be inserted between the constituent parts (base and verbalizing verb) of a compound verb, it is possible to resort to insertion in some compound verbs. This leads us to conclude that the degree of cohesion existing between the base and verbalizer varies. In some compounds the constituent verbs can be converted into relative participle forms which stand to attribute the constituent nouns.

Compound Verb                      Relative participle form + N

tunpappaTu 'suffer'                  paTTa tunpam 'the suffering which is underwent'

kaSappaTu 'suffer'                   paTTa kaSTam 'the suffering which is underwent'

utavi cey 'help'                         ceyta utavi 'the help which is done'

tiirmanam cey 'decide'             ceyta tiirmaanam 'decision which is made'

We can infer that the cohesion between noun and verb in the above compound verbs is weak.  But conversion of N + V into relative participle form + N is not possible in the case of certain compound verbs.

Compound Verb                      Relative participle form + N

            caattiyappaTu 'be possible     *paTTa caattiyam

            kuNappaTuttu 'cure '               *paTuttiya kuNam

            kaali cey 'empty'                      *ceyta kaali

 We can infer that the cohesion between noun and verb in the above compound verbs is strong.

4. The Formation Of Compound Verbs          

The following points have to be explored here:

1. Compound verb formation rules

2. The bases and the verbalizers which are involved in compound verb formation 

3. Specific nature of the rules of compound verb formation

4.  The productivity of the rules of compound verb formation

5.  Lexicalization of the compound verb formation

4.1. Compound Verb Formation Rules

The formation of compound verb can be captured by a general rule of the following:

Base + verbalizer  -> Compound verb

As noted already the bases could be nouns or particles. Accordingly the above general rule can be specified into the following rules:

Noun + verbalizer  -> Compound verb

Particle + verbalizer ->  Compound verb

Apart from nouns and particles, ceytu-type of verbal forms, ceyya-type of verbal forms and case inflected nouns can come before a verbalizing verb to form compounds.

ceytu-type of verbal forms + verbalizer

kaaTTi 'having showed' + koTu 'give > kaaTTikkoTu 'betray'

viTTu 'having left' + koTu 'give' > viTTukkoTu 'make allowance for'

kaNTu 'having seen' + piTi 'catch' > kaNTupiTi 'findout'

ceyya-type of verbal forms + verblizer

tavaRa 'to let fail' + viTu 'leave' > tavaRaviTu 'miss'

tooRka ' to let fail' + ati 'beat > toRkaTi 'defeat'

Case inflected noun + verbalizer

uTaippil 'in breach'+ pooTu 'put'> uTaippil pooTu 'throw out, dump'

tuukkil 'in noose for hanging'+ pooTu 'put' > tuukkil pooTu 'hang'

kiTappil 'in state of lying' + pooTu > kiTappil pooTu 'keep something pending'

4.2 Bases

Base forms the first constituent of a compound verb. As the compound verbs fulfil the immediate need of the Tamil speakers, the bases are extracted not only from Tamil source but also from other languages like Sanskrit and English. In modern Tamil, a lot of English bases are used by the educated people.

Compound verbs with bases from Tamil source

            payiRci 'training'+ aLi > payirciyaLi 'train'

            viTai 'farewell' + koTu > viTaikoTu 'bid farewell'

            ndiccal 'swimming'+ aTi > ndiiccalaTi 'swim'

Compound verbs with bases from Sanskrit source

            kopam 'anger' + paTu > kopappaTu 'feel angry'

            candtooSam 'happiness' + paTu > cantooSappaTu 'feel happy'

            vicaaraNai 'investigation' + cey > vicaaraNai cey 'investigate'

Compound verbs with bases from English source

            areenj 'arrange' + paNNu > areenj paNNu 'arrange'

            avuT 'out' + aaku > avuTaaku 'exit'

            aTmiT 'admit' + cey > aTmiTcey 'admit'

The bases are borrowed as nouns even if they belong to different grammatical category in the source language.

            aakT 'act' + paNNu > aakTpaNNu 'act'

            aap 'off' + paNNu > aappaNNu 'put off'

            in 'in' + paNNu > inpaNNu 'tug in'

'Act' is a verb in English which is borrowed as a noun in Tamil; 'off' and 'in' are prepositions in English which are borrowed in Tamil as nouns. The base which forms the constituent of a compound can belong to any one of the following grammatical categories: noun, particle, onomatopoeic word. The noun could be simple, compound or derived.

Simple Noun + Verbalizer

            araTTai 'chat (N)' + aTi > araTTaiyaTi 'chat'

            uRuti 'firmness' + aLi > uRutiyaLi 'confirm'

            cuuRai 'scattering' + aaTu > cuRaiyaaTu 'plunder'

            vazakku 'case; suit' + aaTu > vazakkaaTu 'argue a case'

Derived noun + Verbalizer

            aaRutal 'consolation' + aLi > aaRutal aLi 'console'

            celavu 'expense' + azi > celavazi 'spend'

            toTarpu 'contact'+ koL > toTarpukoL 'contact'

            veRuppu 'dislike'+ uuTTu > veRuppuuTu 'cause dislike'

            [aaRu 'become cold', cel 'go', toTar 'follow', veRu  'dislike']

Compound Noun + Verbalizer

            Noun + Noun + Verbalizer

            pulan + vicaaraNai > pulanvicaaraNai 'investigation' + cey>

            pulanvicaraNai cey 'investigate'

Derived Noun + Noun + Verbalizer

            ndaTai + muRai > ndaTaimuRai 'practice' + paTuttu > ndaTaimuRaippaTuttu 'put into practice'

Verbal participle form + Noun + Verbalizer

            parindtu + urai > parindturai 'recommendation' + cey > parindturai cey 'recommend'

Verb stem + Noun + Verbalizer

            paRi + mutal > paRimutal ‘confiscation’+ cey ‘do’  paRimutal cey 'confiscate’

            kuttu ‘hit’ + caNTai > kuttuccaNTai 'boxing' + pooTu ‘put’ > kuttuccaNTaipooTu 'perform  boxing'

Onomatopoeic Word + Verbalizer

            paLic + iTu > paLicciTu 'flash; shine'

            tiTukku + iTu > tiTukkiTu 'be alarmed'

4.3. Verbalizer

There are thirty nine verbs which can be claimed to function as verbalizers to form compound verbs from bases.


Verbalizers with core meaning

Examples of Compound verbs in which the verbalizers form a part


aTi 'beat'

kaN 'eye' + aTi > kaNNaTi 'wink'


aTai 'get'

muTivu 'end' + aTai > muTivaTai 'come to  an end'


aLi 'give'

paricu 'prize' + aLi > paricaLi 'award'


aaku 'become'

veLi 'outside + aaku > veLiyaaku 'come  out'


aakku 'produce'

cooRu 'cooked rice' + aakku > cooRaakku  'cook rice’


aaTu 'move'

kuuttu 'drama' + aaTu > kuuttaaTu 'act'


aaTTu 'swing'                                 

ciir 'orderliness' + aTTu > ciiraaTTu 'tend lovingly'


aaRRu 'perform'

paNi 'work' + aaRRu > paNiyaaRRu 'work'


iTu 'put'

paarvai 'look' + iTu > parvaiyiTu 'inspect'


uRu 'obtain'

keLvi 'hearsay' + uRu > keeLviyuRu 'get to know'


uRuttu 'trouble'

tunpam 'suffering' + uRuttu > tunpuRuttu 'cause suffering'


uuTTu 'give'

ndinaivu 'rememberance' + uuTTu > ndinaivuuTTu 'remind'


eTu 'take'

ooyvu 'rest' + eTu > ooyveTu 'take  rest'


eytu 'obtain'

maraNam 'death' + eytu > maraNameytu 'die'


eel 'accept'

patavi 'position' + eel > pataviyeel 'take office'


eeRu 'rise'

cuuTu 'heat' + eeRu > cuuTeeRu 'become  hot'


erru 'raise'

veLi 'outside' + eeRRu > veLiyeeRRu  'expel'


kaTTu 'tie'                        

iiTu 'compensation' + kaTTu > iiTukaTTu 'make up'


kaaTTu 'show'

aacai 'desire' + kaaTTu 'show' > aacaikaaTtu 'lure; tempt'


kuuRu 'say'

puRam 'back' + kuuRu > purangkuuRu  'backbite’


koTu 'give'

peeccu 'conversation' + koTu > peeccukkoTu 'initiate a talk'


koL 'get'

toTarpu 'contact' + koL > totarpu koL 'contact'


cey 'do'

vicaaraNai 'investigation' + cey > vicaaraNai cey 'investigate'


col 'say'

kooL 'lie' + col > kooL col 'tell tale'


taTTu 'pat'

maTTam 'substandard' +taTTu>maTTam taTTu 'degrade'


paTu 'experience'

veTkam 'shyness' + paTu > veTkappaTu  'feel shy'


paTuttu 'cause to  experience'

tunpam 'suffering' + paTuttu >tunpappaTuttu 'cause to suffer'


paNNu 'do'

yoocanai 'thinking' + paNNu >  yoocanai paNNu 'think'


paar 'see'

veevu 'spying' + paar > veevupaar  'spy'


piTi 'catch'

aTam 'obstinacy' + piTi > aTampiTi 'become obstinate'


puri 'do'

maNam 'marriage' + puri > maNampuri 'marry'


peRu 'get'

ooyvu 'rest' + peRu > ooyvu peRu 'retire (from service)'


poo 'go'

cooram 'adultery' + poo > coorampoo 'commit adultary'


pooTu 'drop'

cattam 'sound' + pooTu > cattam pooTu 'shout'


muuTTu 'make'

koopam 'anger' + muuTTu > koopamuuTTu 'cause anger'


vaa 'come'

valam 'right' + vaa > valamvaa 'go round'


vaangku 'get'

veelai + vangku > veelaivaangku  'extract work'


viTu 'leave'

muuccu 'breath' + viTu > muuccuviTu 'breathe'


vai 'keep’

aTaku 'pledge' + vai > aTakuvai 'pledge'

It has to be noted here that all the verbalizing verbs are native Tamil words. Not all the verbs listed above are actually used as verbalizers. The number of compound verbs formed from each verbalizer also varies.

4.4.  Dependency Of Verbalizers On Bases

It is generally the case that the compound verbs acquire syntactic and semantic features based on the characteristic features of the bases. For example, the compound verbs accaTi (<accu 'printing' + aTi 'beat') 'print', koLLaiyaTi (<koLLai 'plundering' + aTi 'beat') 'plunder' and viiNaTi (<viiN 'waste' + aTi 'beat')’waste' are transitive verbs capable of receiving an object retaining the characteristic feature of aTi 'beat' as a main verb. But the compound verbs such as ndiiccal aTi 'swim', perumaiyaTi 'boast' and araTTaiyaTi 'chat' are intransitive verbs differing from the characteristic feature of ati as the main verb and thus reflecting the influence of the features of the bases. Conversely, kaLavaaTu (<kaLavu 'theft' + aaTu) 'steal', veeTTaiyaaTu (<veeTTai 'hunting' + aaTu) 'hunt' and curaiyaaTu (<cuuRai 'plundering' + aaTu) 'plunder' are transitive verbs differing from the characteristic feature of the verbalizing verb aaTu 'move to and fro' which is basically an intransitive verb. But the compound verbs uraiyaaTu (<urai 'speech' + aaTu) 'talk' and vaataaTu (<vaatam 'argument' + aaTu) 'argue' are intransitive verbs retaining the characteristic feature of atu as a main verb. yookamaTi (<yookam 'luck' + aTi) is capable of receiving a dative subject and thus differing from the verb aTi which receives a nominative subject.

           raaman ndaayai aTittaan 'Rama beat the dog'

            raamanukku yookam aTittatu 'Rama got luck'

The compound verb cuuTeeRu ‘become hot’ is a one place verb, where as its constituent verb eru ‘climb’ is a two place verb.  

            kurangku marattil eeRiyatu 'the monkey climbed the tree'

           ndiir cuuTeeRiyatu 'the water got heated'

The possibility of verbalizers getting combined with the same base noun leads to the formation of synonymous compound verbs.

N + iTu synonymous with N + poTu

caNTaiyitu 'quarrel' - caNtaipooTu 'quarrel'

N + uRu synonymous with N + aTai

tunpamuRu 'suffer' - tunpappaTu 'suffer'

N + akku synonymous with N + patuttu

kuNamaakku 'cure' - kuNappaTuttu 'cure'

N + cey synonymous with N + koTu

taanamcey 'give free' - tanamkoTu 'give free'

The same base can give different meanings with different verbalizers.

veLi 'outside' + iTu > veLiyiTu 'publish'

veLi 'outside + paTu > veLippaTu 'come to be known or seen'

veLi 'outside' + eRu > veLiyeeRu 'come out quit'

veLi 'outside + eeRRu > veLiyeeRRu 'expel'

Same base can combine with different verbalizers by bringing out their polysemous nature.

iiTu + eeRRu > iTeeRRu 'fulfil'

iiTu + kaTTu > iiTukaTTu 'make good'

iiTu + koTu > iiTu koTu 'make up to'

iiTu + paTu > iiTu paTu 'engage; involve'           

iiTu + vai > iiTu vai 'pledge'

4.5. Dynamics of Compound Verb Formation

The dynamism involved in the formation of compound verbs can be listed as follows

1. For fulfilling the need

2. To bring out different shades of meaning

3. Due to the development of analytical nature

4. For showing stylistic variation

4.5.1 Fulfilling The Need

It is natural that language speakers form new words to express their new ideas and experience. As the speakers are exposed to new ideas and experience due to their contact with foreign language, they resort to form new verbs by making use of bases from the foreign language and Tamil verbs as verbalizers.

amal 'implementation'+ paTuttu > amalpaTuttu 'implement'

ooTTu 'vote' + pooTu > ooTTuppooTu 'cast vote'

cipaaricu 'recommendation' + cey > cipaaricu cey 'recommend'

vivaakarattu 'divorce' + cey > vivaakarattu cey 'divorce'amul is a base borrowed from Hindi, vottu is from English, ciparicu is from Urdu and vivakarattu is from Sanskrit. Even Tamil nouns and particles have been used as bases to fulfil their need.

accu 'print' + aTi > accaTi 'print'

tiTTam 'plan' + pooTu > tiTTam pooTu 'plan'

vaakku 'word' + aLi > vakkaLi 'promise'

veli 'outside' + itu > veliyitu 'publish'

maRiyal 'strike' + cey > maRiyal cey 'perform strike'

 4.5.2 Different Shades Of Meaning

Compound verbs have been formed to bring out different shades of meaning. The following differences in shades of meaning can be listed by taking cues form Karthikeyan (1983).

1) State vs. change of state

2) Inceptive vs. terminative

3) Direct vs. indirect

4) Low status vs. high status

5) General vs. specific

6) Specified subject vs. unspecified subject

7) Subject oriented vs. indirect object oriented

8) Explicit vs. implicit State Vs. Change Of Stat

While simple verb denotes the state of a feeling, the compound verb which is related to it will denote change of state of feeling.

avaL varundtinaaL 'she felt sorry.'

avaL varuttam aTaindtaaL 'she felt sorry' Terminative Vs. Inceptive

While simple verb denotes a terminative meaning, the related compound verb denotes inceptive meaning.

 paya 'be afraid' vs. payam + eTu > payameTu 'start feeling afraid'

avaL payandtaL 'she was afraid'

avaLukku payameTuttatu 'she started feeling afraid'

paci 'feel hungry' vs. paciyeTu 'start feeling hungry'

avaLukkup pacittatu 'she felt hungry'

avalukku paciyetuttatu 'she started feeling hungry' Direct Vs. Indirect

While the simple verb denotes direct action, the compound verb related to it denotes indirect action.

            avaL avanai azaittaaL 'she invited him'

            avaL avanukku azaippu viTuttaaL 'she invited him through somebody'

            avaL avanai atazittaaL 'she supported him

            avaL avanukku aataravu koTuttaL 'she gave him support' Low Status Vs. High Status

While simple verb denotes the low status of subject or object, the compound verb which is related to it denotes the high status of subject or object.

            avarkaL avanaip putaittarkaL 'they burried him'

            avarkaL avanai aTakkam ceytaarkaL 'they burried him' General Vs. Specific

While simple verb denotes a general meaning, the related compound verb denotes specific meaning.

            avaL avanai vicaarittaaL 'She enquired him'

            avaL avanai vicaaraNai ceytaaL 'she interrogated him' Concrete Sense Vs. Abstract Sens

While simple verb denotes concrete sense, the compound verb denotes abstract sense.

            avaL avan kaiyait taTuttaaL 'she obstructed his hand'

            avar cinimavait taTai ceytaar 'he banned the cinema'

            avaL andta puuvai moondtaaL 'she smelled the flower

            ndaay mooppam piTittatu 'the dog sniffed' Specified Agent Vs. Unspecified Agent

While the simple verb specifies agent, the compound makes the agent unspecified.

            avan vilaiyai ndirNayittaan 'he fixed the price'

            vilai ndirNayamaayiRRu 'the price is fixed'

            avan puttakam piracurittaan 'he published the book'

            puttakam piracuramaayiRRu 'the book is published'  Subject Oriented Vs. Indirect Object Oriented

While one type specifies subject orientation of the action, the other type specifies indirect object oriented action.

            avan aaRutal  aTaindtaan 'he got satisfied'

            avan avaLukku aaRutalaLittaan 'he consoled her'  Explicit Vs. Implicit

While one type of compound verbs denote expressed or explicit feeling, the other type of compound verbs denote implicit feeling.

avan avaLiTam varuttappaTTaan 'he expressed his unhappiness to her.'

avan varuttamaTaindtaan 'he became unhappy'

4.5.3  Development Of Analytic Nature

A language can become analytic or synthetic in course of time.  Modern Tamil appears to be more of analytic in nature than  old Tamil. It appears that one or two compound verbs are formed parallel to a simple verb.

            Simple form                                        Analytic form

            utavu 'help'                                          utavicey 'help'

            camai 'cook'                                        camaiyal cey 'cook'

            muyal 'try'                                            muyaRcicey 'try'

            mayangku 'become unconcious'           mayakkamaTai 'become unconcious'

            koopi 'show anger'                               koopappaTu 'show anger'

4.5.4  Bringing Out Stylistic Differences

The preference of simple for compound or vice versa can bring in stylistic difference.

            Literary style                                     Spoken style

            aaL 'rule'                                              aaTci cey 'rule'

            irangku 'show pity'                               irakkappaTu 'show pity'

            muyal 'try'                                            muyaRci cey 'try'

4.6. The Productivity And Lexicalization Of Compound Verb Formation

One of the goals of morphological theorizing is to account for the ways in which speakers both understand and form not only the existing words that occur in their language, but also potential words which are not instantiated in use in utterance. The following points of Katamba (1993) on productivity is worth mentioning here:

(i) Productivity is a matter of degree. It is not a dichotomy, with some word-formation processes being productive and others being unproductive.  Probably no processes is so general that it affects, without exception, all the bases to which it could potentially apply.  The reality is that some processes are relatively more general than others.

(ii) Productivity is subject to the dimension of time.  A process which is very general during one historical period may become less so at a subsequent period.  Conversely, a new process entering a language may initially affect a tiny fraction of eligible inputs before eventually applying more widely.”

Formation of  compound verbs by the combination of a noun with a verbalizer is a productive process in Tamil.  Tamil resort to increase its verb stock only by the process of compounding.  The compound verbs which are  lexicalized  as they attain idiosyncrasy in their formation and/or meaning got listed in a dictionary. Many of the compound verbs listed in Karthikeyan (1983) and Rajendran (1979) are found listed in KTTA as they are lexicalized at the syntactic and semantic level. One can argue that if the resultant forms are listed in a dictionary, it is redundant to deal about them by word-formation rules. The word-formation rules in the formation of compound noun is productive and still operative, but the output needs to be listed in a dictionary as the compound forms are lexicalized at syntactic and semantic levels. At the same time many compound verbs do not get listed in KTTA. As we have seen already, the bases which can participate in the formation of compound nouns are from native and non-native source and verbalizers are from native source. The verbalizers are almost finite in number. When we compare the list of compounds found in Karthikeyan (1983) with those found in KTTA, we notice that lexicalized as well non-lexicalized compounds are found in Karthikeyan whrereas KTTA lists only lexicalized compounds. The following table will give a comparative account of the number of compound verbs formed by each verbalizer.



Number of compounds found in Karthikeyan

Number of compounds

 found in KTTA





























































































































































If we interpret the productivity of the verbalizer in the formation of compound verbs on the basis of number of compounds formed, cey appears to be more productive; paNNu comes next followed by paTuttu, aTai, paTu, aaku, uRu, iTu, aTi, aLi, koTu, muuTTu, pooTu, aakku and so on as per the number of compounds formed. Aronoff (1976) argues that one cannot calculate the productivity on the basis of number of items formed. Productivity, according to him, is not easy to be calculated and a number of factors are to be taken into account while calculating the productivity. Productivity has to be calculated based on the proportion of possible forms and forms formed. Almost all the items listed in Karthikeyan are listed in KTTA with the exception of certain verbalizers. That means KTTA has listed almost all the compounds listed in Karthikeyan as they are lexicalized, especially at the semantic level. Even then new compounds are always formed to fill the gap or to fulfil the need. It appears that analogy plays a part in the formation of new compounds.

5. Examination Of The Compound Verb Formation Based On Each Verbalizer

The strategies followed in the formation of compound nouns can be understood properly only if we examine the compounds formed under each verbalizers listed above. The following details have to be taken into account for each verbalize.

1. The main and the auxiliary meanings of the verbalizers.

2.  The list of compounds formed from each verbalizer.

3.  The list of bases which are compounded with each verbalizer.

4. The semantic domain or area to which the set of bases which are associated  with a particular verbalizer belong.

5.  The number of nonce formations for each verbalizer

6.      The predictability of the bases to which the verbalizers can be affixed and the derived meaning.

Let us examine a few verbalizers from the above points of view.

5.1. Verbalization by  aTi

The main meaning of the verbalizer aTi is 'beat' and the verb belongs to the semantic domain Verbs of Impact. The polysemous nature of aTi will be exposed when it is collocated with different nouns. Rajendran (1979) classifies the different meanings of aTi based on its collocation with different nouns:

Sr. No.

Different meanings of aTi

Collocation with different nouns


drive in

aaNi 'nail' + aTi 'drive in nail'



maNi 'bell' + aTi > maNiyaTi 'ring, chime'



muttirai 'stamp' aTi > muttiraiyaTi 'stamp'



veyil 'sunshine' + aTi > veyilati 'shine'



ndaaRRam 'foul smell' + aTi > narramati 'smell’



alai 'wave' + aTi > alaiyaTi 'dash as waves'



varnam 'paint' + aTi > varNamaTi 'paint'



azhaippitazh 'invitation card' + aTi > azhaippitazh aTi 'print invitation'



caTTai 'shirt' + aTi > caTTaiyaTi 'stitch shirts'



kancaa 'hemp' + aTi > kanca ati 'consume hemp'


strike as luck

yookam 'luck' + aTi > yokamaTi 'strike as luck'


run temperature

kaayccal 'fever' + aTi > kaayccal aTi 'run temperature'

The above composition cannot be considered as compound verbs, though the nouns to which aTi gets collocated have to be listed for the interpretation of meaning. In the case of maNamaTi 'smell', ndaaRRamaTi 'smell bad', mazaiyaTi 'rain', veyilaTi 'shine', kaaRRati 'blow as wind', puyalaTi 'blow as storm', the nouns maNam 'smell', ndaaRRam 'bad smell', mazai 'rain', veyil 'sun shine', kaaRRu 'wind', and puyal 'storm' have to be considered as subjects and not as bases of compound verbs. The following compound verbs are listed in KTTA:

            accu 'print' + aTi > accaTi 'print'

            katir 'ear’(of corn)' + aTi > katiraTi 'thrash (paddy)'

            kaN 'eye' + ati > kannati 'wink'

            kaappi 'copy” + aTi > kaappiyaTi 'copy'

            kaay 'testicle' + aTi > kaayaTi 'castrate'

kummi 'dance accompanied by clapping of hands' + aTi > kummiyaTi 'dance around clapping hands'

            kuuttu 'noisy scene' + aTi > kuuttaTi 'create a noisy scene'

            koLLai 'robbery' + aTi > koLLaiyaTi 'plunder'

            cingki 'hand cymbals' + aTi > cingkiyaTi 'be in strains'

            ciiTTi 'whistle' + aTi > ciiTTiyaTi 'whistle'

            tandti 'telegram' + aTi > tandtiyaTi 'send a telegram, wire'

            tampaTTam 'a large, round tom-tom' + aTi > tampaTTamaTi 'spread news; boast'

            tamukku 'a kind of small drum' + aTi > tamukkaTi 'notify the public by tom-tom'

            palTi 'somersault' + aTi > palTi ati 'somersault, make a retreat, fail'

            perumai 'pride' + aTi > perumaiyaTi 'brag about'

            poor 'stalk of paddy,  + aTi > pooraTi 'thresh paddy by beating or walking bullock      over the sheaves'

            maTTai 'stick' + aTi > maTTaiyaTi 'do something monotonous'

            moTTai 'shaven state of head' + aTi > moTTaiyaTi 'shave the head'

            vaay 'mouth' + aTi > vayaTi 'pay lip-service'

            viiN 'uselessness' + aTi > viiNaTi 'waste'

            veLLai 'white colour' + aTi > veLLaiyaTi 'whitewash'

The above listed N + V forms are considered as compounds as they are lexicalized at the semantic level attaining idiosyncratic or idiomatic meanings. The question before us is that how for ati can be used as a verbalizer in producing new compound verbs.

The formation of new compounds can be visualized as two processes:

            1) A phrase of type N + V attains idiosyncratic or idiomatic meaning and becomes  a compound.

            2) A new compound is created based on the already existing compound, i.e. on  analogy.

For example kottati 'beat drum' can become a compound verb if it attains the idiomatic meaning 'spread news'  or 'boast'. The following formations which are not listed in KTTA can be considered as compound formations based on analogy, i.e. based on the already existing kutati 'create a noisy scene'.

            koTTam 'boisterous or unruly behaviour' + aTi 'behave boisterously or unruly'

            kummaaLam 'uncontrolled merriment' + aTi > kummaLam aTi 'act or behave with     uncontrolled merriment'

5.2. Compound verb formation by aTai

aTai as a main verb means 'get' which comes under sub domain Verbs of Getting which in turn comes under the major semantic domain Verbs of Transfer. The combinatory formations of aTai with nouns whose status as compound verbs are taken into consideration are listed below in terms of certain groups depending on the nouns involved in the formations.

            1. With nouns denoting emotions

            accam + aTai > accamaTai 'feel fear'

            candtoSam + aTai > candtoSamaTai 'feel happy'

            ndimmati + aTai > ndimmatiyaTai 'feel peaceful'

            viyappu + aTai > viyappaTai 'feel surprised'

            2. With nouns denoting a state

            uukkam + aTai > uukkamaTai 'become strong'

            kuLircci + aTai > kuLircciyaTai 'become cool'

            ceetam + aTai > ceetamaTai 'become spoiled'

            mayakkam + aTai > mayakkamaTai 'become unconscious'

            3. With nouns denoting status or achievement

            veRRi + aTai > veRRiyaTai 'succeed'

            pukaz + aTai > pukazaTai 'get fame'

As the above listed forms are transparent in the sense that the constituent meanings can be used to interpret the total meaning of the constitute, they are phrasal in character than compound. These forms are not listed in KTTA. KTTA has listed only 5 as N + atai compounds as they are semantically lexicalized.

5.3. Verbalization by aLi

The vebalizer aLi comes under the semantic domain VERBS OF TRANSFERENCE The use of aLi is restricted to written language.  It comes as a compound with different nominal elements.  Generally it expresses benefaction or award.  It collocates with a number of nouns to form compound verbs.  As a verbalizer aLi can be equated with koTu which is synonymous with aLi. The verbalizing behaviour of aLi is similar to that of koTu.

5.4. Verbalization by aaku

aaku comes under the semantic domain VERBS OF STATE. It is a copula verb expressing that something or some one is in a specified state or condition.  The compound verbs formed by aaku generally expresse the change from one state or condition to antother state or condition and so they get grouped under VERBS OF CHANGE OF STATE. Based on its collocation with the nouns to form compound verbs the following classes can be identified:

1.      Nouns expressing deformity of the body parts + aaku

$uunam 'deformity, handicap'' + aaku > uunamaaku 'become handicapped'

$kuruTu 'blind' + aaku > kuruTaaku 'become blind'

$muTam 'lameness' + aaku > muTamaaku 'become handicapped'

2.      Nouns denoting conditions or qualities + aaku

$iruTTu 'darkness' + aaku > iruTTaaku 'become dark'

$cuuTu 'hotness' + aaku > cuuTaaku 'become hot'

$teLivu 'clarity' + aaku > teLivaaku 'become clear'

$paazh 'waste' + aaku > paazaaku  'become useless'

$virayam 'wasteage' + aaku > virayamaaku 'become waste'

$viiN 'waste' + aaku > viiNaaku 'become waste'

3.      Nouns of expression or  communication + aaku

$ampalam 'place where public hearing took place' + aakku >amplamaaku 'make known to public'

$piracuram 'publication' + aakku > piracuramaaku 'publish'

 Nouns expressing expulsion + aaku

$viTutalai 'release' + aaku 'get released'

veLi 'outside' + aaku > veLiyaaku 'be released'

It is difficult to say all the collocations listed above are compound verbs.  When there is a transparency of getting the combinatory meaning from the individual meanings of  constituent items, then it is difficult to call them as compounds.  Interestingly the collocations listed above which are marked initially by $ sign are not listed in KTTA.  This amounts to the presumption that all these combinations are not lexicalized to get listed in a dictionary.  If we go by lexicalization as factor for ascertaining a combination as a compound, then the forms marked by $ sign cannot be called as compounds.  In that case, only those forms which are qualified to be get listed in a dictionary can be called as compounds.  KTTA has listed 36 compounds formed by combining certain set nouns with the verbalizer aaku.  Some of them are listed below:

arttam 'meaning' sense' + aaku > arttamaaku 'make sense',

aajar 'present' + aaku > aajaraaku 'appear, be present'

irai 'prey' + aaku > iraiyaaku 'be subject to destruction',

uru 'form' + aaku > uruvaaku 'come into existence',

uRpatti 'production' + aaku > uRpattiyaaku 'originate',

kaalam 'time' + aaku > kaalamaaku 'pass away',

caTangku 'ceremony' + aaku > caTangkaaku 'come to age',

It has to be noted that a number of items listed in Karthikeyan (1983) are not listed in KTTA. The following is the sample of the list.

            $payaNam 'travel' + aaku > payaNamaaku 'start a journey'

            $aikkiyam 'oneness' + aaku > aikkiyamaaku 'be united'

            $aarampam 'beginning' + aaku > aarampamaaku 'start'

            $aayattam 'preparations' + aaku > aayattamaaku ' get ready'

It may be because the collocations are so transparent that the combinatory meanings can be had from the individual meanings of the constituents. But the productivity of a formation demands predictability of the combination.  The combinatory of meaning of a collocated item can be predicted only at the stage of transparency.  It is likely that it attains idiosyncrasy when get lexicalized  in terms of meaning. In such stage it get listed in the dictionary as a single word. Anyhow, it is possible to say that aaku is a productive verbalizer as it is capable of combining with a number of nouns which in due course get listed in a dictionary. 

Not all collocations can be categorized as compounds.  For example, aaku collocates with words denoting time such as neeram 'time', camayam 'time', kaalataamatam 'delay'  'time', ndaaL 'day', etc. will express delay.

            avan viiTTiRkup pooka ndeeram aakum 'there will be delay in his going home'

avan viiTTiRkup pooka ndeeram aakiviTTatu 'Time has come form him to leave for home'

avan anta veelaiyaic ceytu muTikka ndaaLaakum 'It will take days to complete the work'

avan anta veelaiyaic ceytu muTikka ndaaLaayiRRu 'He has taken many days to complete the work'

5.5. Verbalization by aaku

aakku comes under the semantic domain VERBS OF CREATION. aakku denotes creating, producing or causing something to come up. As a vebalizer it is used in the sense of 'change', 'transform' , 'make' , etc.  As in the case of aaku, aakku can also be classified into a few types based on its collocation with nouns. 

1.Nouns expressing deformity of the body parts + aakku

$uunam 'deformity, handicap'' + aakku > uunamaaku 'make handicapped'

$kuruTu 'blind' + aakku > kuruTaakku 'make blind'

$muTam 'lameness' + aakku > muTamaakku 'make handicapped'

4.      Nouns denoting conditions or qualities + aaku

$azhukku 'dirty' + aakku > azhukkaakku 'make dirty'

cezhippu 'prosperity' + aakku > cezhippaakku 'make prosper'

$cuuTu 'hotness' + aakku > cuuTaakku 'make hot'

$teLivu 'clarity' + aakku > teLivaakku 'make clear'

$paazh 'waste' + aakku > paazhaakku  'destroy'

$virayam 'wasteage' + aaku > virayamaaku 'waste'

$viiN 'waste' + aaku > viiNaaku 'waste'

5.      Nouns of expression or  communication + aaku

$arttam 'meaning' + aaku > arttamaaku 'make sense'

$ampalam 'place where public hearing took place' + aaku >amplamaaku 'be known to public'

$piracuram 'publication' + aaku > piracuramaaku 'get published'

$piracaaram + aaku > piracaaramaaku 'become public'

$peeccu  'talk' + aaku  > peeccaaku 'become topic of the talk'

6.      Nouns expressing expulsion + aaku

$viTutalai 'release' + aaku 'get released'

veLi 'outside' + aaku > veLiyaaku 'be released'

KTTA has listed 24 compounds formed by combining certain set nouns with the verbalizer aakku.  Some of them are listed below:

irai 'prey' + aakku > iraiyaakku 'subject to destruction',

uru 'form' + aaku > uruvaakku 'construct'

kari 'charcoal' + aakku > kariyaakku 'fritter'

            kaacu 'coin' + aakku > kaacaakku 'cash in'

            caTTam 'law' + aakku > caTTamaakku 'enact'

Not all the aaku compounds have parallel aakku compounds.  It has to be noted that a number of items listed in Karthikeyan (1983) are not listed in KTTA. The following is the sample of the list.

            $atikam 'excess' + aakku > atikmaakku 'increase'

            $azhukku 'dirty' + aakku > azhukkaakku 'make dirty'

            $uayaram 'height' + aakku > uyaramaakku 'make tall'

            $cikkal 'complication' + aakku > cikkalaakku 'complicate'           

As noted already, the reason could the transparency in their formation. Anyhow, it is possible to say that aakku is a productive verbalizer as it is capable of combining with a number of nouns which in due course get listed in a dictionary. 

5.6. Vebalization by aaTu

aaTu comes under the semantic domain VERBS OF NON-DIRECTIONAL MOVEMENT.  aaTu expresses swinging, oscillating or waving movement of a body which is hanged or attached so as to move freely.  Karthikeyan (1983) classify the formation based on the movement of the body parts as aaTu involves body movement. 

          1. Movement of the body

            aaTTam + aaTu > aaTTamaaTu 'dance'

            uRavu 'relation +  aaTu > uRavaaTu 'act friendly'

            Movement of the hands

            kaLavu 'stealing' + aaTu > kaLavaaTu 'steal'

            cuutu 'gambling' + aaTu > cuutaaTu 'gamble'

            2. Movement of the lips

            urai 'speech' + aaTu > uraiyaaTu 'perform'

            vazhakku 'dispute' aaTu > vazhakkaaTu ' dispute'

            3. Psychological movement

            tiNTaaTu 'suffer'

            tikkumukkaaTu 'suffer as to not able to breath'

It appears that there is no logic behind this classification.  The best way of classifying the nominal bases which collocates with aaTu could be to group them as nouns of performance.  aaTu when collocated with these nouns denotes the verbalizing meaning 'perform'.

1. Nouns denoting certain performance + aaTu

urai 'speech' + aaTu > uraiyaaTu 'talk'

uRavu 'intimacy' + aaTu > uRavaaTu 'move closely'

kuuttu 'dance' + aaTu > kuuttaaTu 'dance; be higly elated'

cuutaatu 'gambling' + aaTu > cuutaaTu 'gamble'

cuuRai 'plundering' + aaTu > cuuRaiyaaTu 'plunder'

poor 'fighting' + aaTu > pooraaTu 'fight'

ndaTam 'walking' + aaTu > ndaTamaaTu 'walk about'

ndaaTakam 'drama' + aaTu > ndaaTakamaaTu 'act'

vazhakku 'dispute' + aaTu > vazhakkaaTu 'argue'

vaatu 'dispute' + aaTu > vaataaTu ' argue'

2.      Certain miscellaneous nouns + aaTu

koNTu  + aaTu > koNTaaTu 'celebrate'

taLLu  'staggering' aaTu > taLLaaTu 'stagger'

tikkumukkku '?' + aaTu > tikkumukkaaTu ' get suffocate'

tiNTu  + aaTu > tiNTaaTu 'suffer'

manRu 'hall' + aaTu > manRaaTu ' implore'

viLai 'ground' + aaTu > viLaiyaaTu 'play'

KTTA has listed 33 compound verbs formed by the verbalizer aaTu.  The compounds unmarked for $ sign are found in KTTA.  aaTu appears to be not a productive vebalizer as it does not encourage predictable collocations to form compound verbs.  The only possibility of nonce formation could be by forming new idiomatic meaning as exemplified in the following examples:

            ataiyum itaiyumceyyaccolli avarkaL kaNNanaip pandtaaTinaarkaL

            'They harassed Kannan by asking to do this and that'

            avarkaL peNakaLai veTTaiyaaTap puRappaTTaarkaL

            'They started to harm women'

5.7. Verbalization by aaTTu

aaTTu is the transitive form of aaTu.  It also is grouped under VERBS OF MOVEMENT and also under VERBS OF IMPACT. It is used with the meaning 'shake; cause to swing', etc. Karthikeyan(1983) has listed this under verbalizer as it is not a productive verbalizer.  KTTA has listed only 6 compounds formed by aaTTu.  The following forms are listed in Rajendran (1978:247).           

            $uRakku 'sleep' + aaTTu > uRakkaaTTu 'cause to sleep'

            kuLippu 'bathing' + aaTTu > kuLippaaTTu 'bathe'

            ciir 'git' + aaTTu > ciiraaTTu 'tend lovingly'

            taal 'lullaby' + aaTTu > talaaTTu 'rock a child singing lullabies'

            paar 'world' + aaTTu > paraaTTu 'praise'

            vaal 'tail' + aaTTu > valaaTTu 'act provocatively against some one'

            maavu  'dough' + aaTTu > maavaaTTu 'grind'           

5.8. Verbalization by aaRRu

aaRRu is grouped under the semantic domain VERBS OF PERFORMANCE. It expresses doing, carrying out or performing a work, duty, etc.  It is collocated with nouns denoting work, duty, speech, lecture, etc. to form compound verbs. 

1.      Nouns denoting work, duty, etc. + aaRRu

            $kaTamai 'duty' + aaRRu > kaTamaiyaaRRu 'perform duty'

            $ceyal 'deed' + aaRRu > ceyalaaRRu 'perform'

            $toNTu 'service' + aaRRu > toNTaaRRu 'serve'

            paNi 'work' + aaRRu > paNiayaaRRu 'work, serve'

2.      Nouns denoting speech, etc. + aaRRu

$urai 'speech + aaRRu > uraiyaaRRu 'deliver a speech'

$coRpozhivu 'speech' + aaRRu > coRpozhivaaRRu 'deliver a speech'

$virivurai 'elaborate speech' + aaRRu > virivuraiyaaRRu 'lecture elaborately'

KTTA has listed only 3 compounds formed by this vebalizer. aaRRu is not a productive verbalizer as its use is restricted to written language. 

5.9. Verbalization by iTu 

iTu comes under the semantic domain VERBS OF TRANSFER.  It is primarily used with the meaning 'put; place'.  As a verbalizer  it collocates with a set of nouns forming compound verbs.  The following classification nominal based can be identified to understand the verbalization by iTu.  

1.      A set of nouns denoting different types o noises + iTu

iraiccal 'noise' + iTu > iraiccaliTu 'make noise'

uuLai 'howl of a jackal or  a dog' + iTu > uuLaiyiTu 'howl'

oolam 'roar; cry of lamentation' + iTu > oolamiTu 'roar; produce cry of lamentation'

kuuccal 'shouting' + iTu > kuuccaliTu 'shout'

kooSam 'slogan' + iTu > kooSamiTu 'shout slogan'

captam 'noise' + iTu > captamiTu 'make noise'

2.      A subset of  nouns of communication + iTu

aaNai 'order; command' + iTu > aaNaiyiTu ' give order; command'

uttaravu 'order; commad' + iTu > uttaraviTu 'give order; command'

kaTTaLai 'order; command' + iTu > kaTTaLaiyiTu 'give order; command'

capatam 'vow' + iTu > capatamiT ' vow'

caapam 'curse' + iTu > caapamiTu 'curse'

ndipandtanai 'condition' + iTu > ndipandtaniyiTu 'put condition'

vaatu 'argument' + iTu > vaatiTu 'argue'           

3.      A subset of nouns aggression + iTu

poor 'war' + iTu > pooriTu 'wage war'

caNtai 'fight' + iTu > caNTaiyiTu ' fight'

vazhakku 'discput' + iTu > vazhkkiTu 'dispute'

pooTTi 'competition' + iTu > pooTtiyiTu 'compete'

4.      A set of onomatopoeic nouns denoting brightness, chill, noise, etc. + iTu

paLic 'brightness' + iTu > pLicciTu 'shine'

jil 'chill' + iTu > jilliTu 'be chill; be cold'

kiriic 'shrill noise' + iTu > kiriicciTu 'make shrill noise'

jil 'chill' + iTu > jilliTu 'be chill; be cold'

5.      Miscellaneous Nouns + iTu

accu 'print' + iTu > acciTu 'print'

aLavu 'measurement' + iTu > aLaviTu 'measure'

eNNam 'though' + iTu > eNNamiTu 'think'

oppam 'signature + iTu > oppamiTu  'put signature'

oppu 'comarison' + iTu > oppiTu 'compare'

kuRukku 'contradiction' + iTu > kuRukkiTu 'interfere'

kuuRu 'share' + iTu > kuuRiTu 'share'

ceppan 'perfection' + iTu > ceppamiTu 'repair'

celavu 'expenditure' iTu > celaviTu 'spend'

talai 'head' + iTu > talaiyiTu 'interfere'

pongkal 'cooking of rice' + iTu > pongkaliTu 'prepare cooked rice as offer to god'

veLi 'outside' + iTu > veLiyiTu 'publish'

KTTA has listed 50 compounds formed by using the verbalizer iTu which it considers lexicalized to be entered in the dictionary.  Though the use of iTu is restricted to written language, it appears to be a productive verbalizer as it can form nonce formations.

5.10. Verbalization by uRu

uRu cannot come independently. It always comes in collocation with nouns cpressing feeling or state in the sense of 'get; obtain'.  It forms a number of compound verbs as a verbalizer, though its use is restricted to written language. In the modern Tamil the verb aTai which synonymous with uRu is preferred in the place of uRu. Based on the nouns which collocate with the verbalizer uRu, the following classification can be made.

1.      Nouns denoting sufferings, emotions and feelings + uRu

1.1.  Nouns of  suffering + uRu

allal 'suffering + uRu > allaluRu 'suffer'

avati 'suffering' + uRu > avatiyuRu 'suffer'

kalakkam 'sadness' + uRu > kalakkamuRu 'feel sad'

tuyaram 'sadness' + uRu > tuyaramuRu

tunpam "sadness' + uRu > tunpamuRu 'suffer

1.2.  Nouns of  happiness + uRu

inpu 'happiness' + uRu > inpuRu 'feel happy'

candtooSam 'happiness' + uRu > candtooSamuRu ' feel happy'

kaLippu 'happiness' + uRu > kaLippuRu 'feel happy'

kutukkalam 'happiness' + uRu > kutuukalamuRu 'feel happy'

makizhcci 'happiness' + uRu > makizhcciyuRu 'feel happy'

1.3.  Nouns denoting unpleasant  feelings + uRu

accam 'fear' + uRu > accamuRu 'fear'

ericcal 'irritation' + uRu > ericcaluRu 'feel irritated'

aiyam 'doubt' + uRu > aiyaamuRu 'doubt'

calippu 'boredom' + uRu > calippuRu 'feel bored'

ciRumai 'shame' + uRu > ciRumaiyuRu 'feel ashamed'

koopam 'anger' + uRu > koopamuRu 'feel angry'

tuNukku 'shock' + uRu > tuNukkuRu 'feel shocked'

2.      Nouns denoting certain physical state + uRu

2.1.  Nouns denoting bodily state + uRu

uunam 'handicap' + uRu > uunamuRu 'become handicapped'

taLarcci 'weakness' + uRu > taLarcciyuRu 'become weak'

ndalivu 'weakness' + uRu > ndalivuRu 'become weak'

polivu 'freshness' + uRu > polivuRu 'become fresh'

mayakkam 'unconsciousness' + uRu > makkamuRu 'become unconsciousness'

valimai 'strength' + uRu > valimaiyuRu 'become strong'

2.2.  Nouns denoting some good or bad conditions + uRu

$citaivu 'state of ruin'  + uRu > citaivuRu 'get desroyed'

$cezhippu 'flourshing' + uRu > cezhippuRu 'flourish'

$ceetam 'loss; damage' + uRu > ceetamuRu 'get damaged'

3.      Miscellaneous nouns +  uRu

keeLvi 'hear say' + uRu > keeLviyuRu 'come to know; hear'

toolvi 'defeat' + uRu > toolviyuRu 'get defeated'

KTTA has listed only 6 compounds formed by uRu as it tries to represent only modern Tamil. As we stated already in most of the compounds aTai can replace uRu. There a few compounds in which  aTai cannot  replace uRu, for example *keeLviyaTai is not possible Though the use of uRu is restricted to classical Tamil and its use is not encouraged in modern Tamil and its synonym aTai is preferred to uRu, it has its own productive quality which can be exploited to form nonce formations.

5.11.Verbalization by uRuttu

uRuttu is used in the modern Tamil to denote feeling uneasy and also distrubing others feeling. uRuttu is the transitive form of uRu. But it is not as productive as uRu in the formation compound verbs with nouns. It cannot be collocated with all the nouns to which uRu can be collocated.

1. Certain nouns  of feeling  or suffering + uRuttu

accu 'fear' + uRuttu > accuRuttu ' cause fear'

tunpu 'suffering' + uRuttu > tunpuRuttu 'case to suffer; hurt'

payam 'fear' + uRuttu > payamuRuttu 'cause fear'

2. Certain nouns denoting firmness or  force + uRuttu

vaRpu 'firmess' + uRuttu > vaRpuRuttu 'inist; compel'

vali 'force' + uRuttu > valiyuRuttu 'insist'

5.12. Verbalization by uuTTu

uuTTu primarily means cause one to consume food. As a verbalizer it is used with the meaning 'make; case'.   It is primarily used with nouns denoting emotions and feelings to form compound verbs. While uRu with  nouns of emotions and feelings forms compounds denoting the experiencing of those feelings or emotions, uuTTu forms compounds denoting causing of those feelings. It fulfils what the verbalizer uRuttu fails to do. It does not collocates with nouns of suffering.

            1. Nouns denoting emotions and feelings + uuTTu

             Nouns denoting certain pleasant feelings

            inpam 'happiness' + uuTTu > inpamuuTTu 'make happy'

            kaLippu 'happiness' + uuTTu > kaLippuuTtu 'make happy'

            kiLarcci 'excitement' + uuTTu > kiLarcciyuuTTu 'make excited'

            ndampikkai 'faith; hope' + uuTTu > ndampikkaiyuuTTu 'encourage'

            makizhcci 'happiness' + uuTTu > makizhcciyuuTtu 'make happy'

1.1. Nouns denoting certain unpleasant feelings

aattiram 'anger' + uuTTu > aattiramuuTTu 'make angry'

ericcal 'irritation' + uuTTu > ericcaluuTTu 'irritate'

kili 'fear' + uuTTu > kiliyuuTTu 'frighten'

koopam 'anger' + uuTTu > koopamuuTTu 'make angry'

veRi 'fury' + uuTTu > veRiyuuTTu 'infuriate'

veRuppu 'hatred' + uuTTu > veRuppuuTTu 'cause discontent'

2.Miscellaneous nouns + uuTTu

            eri 'fire' uuTTu > eriyuuTTu 'light the funeral fire'

            tii 'fire' + uuTTu > tiiyuuTTu 'light the funeral fire'

            maNam 'fragrance' + uuTTu > maNamuuTTu 'make fragrant'

            valu 'strenth' + uuTTu > valuvuuTTu 'strengthen'

uuTTu appears to be a productive verbalizer capable of forming nonce formations.  KTTA has listed only 5 compounds formed by using uuTTu.  Most of the compounds listed above are not listed in KTTA.  The reason could be the transparency involved in their formation.  If uuTTu is taken as meaning 'give' in the above collocations, one can get the combinatory meaning of the above mentioned compounds from the meanings of  the constituent elements.

Verbalization by  eTu

eTu comes under the semantic domain VERBS OF TRANSFERING. eTu primarily denotes taking possession of something.  As a verbalizer it collocates with certain nouns of feelings and events to denote the inception of respective feelings and events.

1.       A subset of nouns denoting feelings + eTu

uural 'itching sensation' + eTu > uuraleTu 'begin to feel itching sensation'

ericcal 'irritation' + eTu > ericcaleTu 'begin to feel irritation'

taakam 'thirst' + eTu > taakameTu 'begin to feel thirsty'

ndoovu 'pain' + eTu > ndooveTu > ndooveTu 'begin to feel pain'

paci 'hunger' + eTu > paciyeTu 'begin to feel hungry'

payam 'fear' + eTu > payameTu 'begin to fear'

vali 'pain' + eTu > valiyeTu 'begin to feel pain'

2.      A subset of nouns denoting events + eTu

ooTTam 'running' + eTu > ooTTameTu 'begin to run'

ndaTukkam + eTu > ndaTukkameTu 'begin to shiver'

peecu 'speech' + eTu > peecceTu 'initiate talk'

muyaRci 'efforts' + eTu > muyaRciyeTu 'make efforts; try'

vikkal 'hiccup' + eTu > vikkaleTu 'begin to hiccup'

3.      Miscellaneous set of nouns + eTu

3.1.  Set of nouns equivalent to English nouns which collocate with the verb take + eTu (Analogical formation  in line with English)

aLavu 'measure' + eTu > aLaveTu 'take the measure'

ooyvu 'rest' + eTu > ooyveTu 'take rest'

kuRippu 'note' + eTu > kuRippeTu 'take note'

capatam 'oath' + eTu > capatameTu 'take a oath'

tiirmaanam 'decision' + eTu > tiirmaanameTu 'make a decision'

pangku 'part' + eTu > pangkeTu 'take part'

paTi 'copy' + eTu > paTiyeTu 'take copy'

muTivu 'decision + eTu > muTiveTu 'take a decision'

3.2.  Other miscellaneous set of nouns + eTu

uru 'shape' + eTu > uruveTu 'come into existence'

cuviikaaram 'adoption' + eTu > cuviikaarameTu 'adopt'

tattu 'adoption' + eTu > tatteTu 'adopt'

talai 'head' + eTu > talaiyeTu 'come up'

paTam 'picturte' + eTu > paTameTu 'take a picture; shoot a film'

paTam 'hood' + eTu > paTameTu 'spread the hood'

paTai 'army' + eTu > paTaiyeTu 'invade'

piccai 'alms' + eTu > piccaiyeTu 'beg'

piRavi 'birth' + eTu > piRaviyeTu 'born'

vaTivu 'shape' + eTu > vaTiveTu 'take shape'

vaandti 'vomitting' + eTu > vaandtiyeTu 'vomit'

KTTA has listed only 18 compounds formed by eTu.  The forms such as payameTu  and paciyeTu  are not listed in the dictionary. It seems that KTTA has only those items which are lexicalized i.e. which it considers as unanalysable; those forms whose meaning can be predicted from the constituents which involve in compounding are not listed in the dictionary.

Verbalization by eel

eel comes under the semantic domain VERBS OF TRANSFERRING under the sub domain VEBS OF GETTING.  eel primarily denotes accepting and admitting.  Its use is restricted to written language.  Only a few nouns collocates with eel to form compound verbs.  It collocates with the nouns denoting certain responsibility to form compounds.

            1. Subset of nouns denoting responsibility + eel

            talaimai 'leadership' + eel > talaimaiyeel 'preside over'

            patavi 'post' + eel > pataviyeel 'swear in'

            poRuppu 'responsibility + eel > poRuppeel  'take responsibility'

2.Miscellaneous set of nouns + eel

pangku 'part' + eel > pangeel ' take part'

pazhi 'blame' + eel > pazhiyeel 'take the blame'

varavu 'coming' + eel > varaveel 'welcome'

eel is not a productive verbalizer.  KTTA has listed only 3 lexicalized compounds which are formed by collocating nouns with eel.

Verbalization by eeRu

eeRu comes under the semantic domain VERBS OF MOVEMENT and under the sub domain VERBS OF UPWARD MOVEMENT. eeRu denotes upward movement from lower level to higher level. It primarily used with the meaning 'climb up; ascend'. As a verbalizer it forms a number of compounds by combining with nouns. The following types of collocations can be noted:

1.      Set of nouns denoting certain locative relations + eeRu

veLi 'outside' + eeR > veLiyeeRu 'get out'

mun 'in front of' + eeRu > munneeRu 'go forward; prosper'

2.      Subset of nouns denoting physical state of an object + eeRu

cuuTu 'hot' + eeRu > cuuTeeRu 'become hot'

meruku 'polish' + eeRu > merukeeRu 'get polished'

valu 'strength' + eeRu > valuveeRu 'become strong'

3.      Miscellaneous set of nouns + eeRu

accu 'print' + eeRu > acceeRu 'get printed'

arangku 'stage' + eeRu > arangkeeRu 'be staged; be presented'

kuTi 'citizen' + eeRu > kuTiyeeRu 'emigrate'

ndiRaivu 'fulfilment' + eeRu > ndiRaiveeRu 'be completed; get fulfilled'

payir 'crop' + eeRu > payireeRu 'be cultivated'

eeRu is not a productive verbalizer as it does not form nonce formations.          

Verbalization by eeRRu

eeRRu is the transitive form of eeRu.  eeRRu denotes causing something to be placed at a higher level.  It collocates with a few nouns to form compound verbs. The classification of the nominal bases goes according to the nominal bases of eeRu.

1.      Subset of nouns denoting locative relations + eeRRu

mun + eeRRu > munneeRRu 'cause to progress'

veLi + eeRRu > veLiyeeRRu  'discharge; expel'

2.      Subset of nouns denoting physical state of an object + eeRRu

cuuTu 'hot' + eeRRu > cuuTeeRRu 'make hot'

meruku 'polish' + eeRRu > merukeeRRu 'polish'

valu 'strength' + eeRRu > valuveeRu 'strenthen'

4.      Miscellaneous set of nouns + eeRRu

accu 'print' + eeRRu > acceeRu 'print'

arangku 'stage' + eeRRu > arangkeeRRu 'stage;  present'

kuTi 'citizen' + eeRRu > kuTiyeeRu 'settle'

ndiRaivu 'fulfilment' + eeRu > ndiRaiveeRRu 'complete; fulfilled'

payir 'crop' + eeRRu > payireeRRu 'cultivate'           

eRRu is not a productive verbalizer as it does not form  nonce formations.

Verblization by kuuRu

kuuRu comes under the semantic domain VERBS OF COMMUNICATION. It collocates with nouns denoting different kinds of speech.  The use of kuuRu is restricted to written language.  col 'tell', the synonym of kuuRu, is used in the place of kuuRu

1.      Nouns denoting different kinds of speech + kuuRu

aRivurai 'advice' + kuuRu > aRivuraikuuRu 'advise'

aaci 'blessing' + kuuRu > aacikuuRu 'bless'

uRuti 'promise' + kuuRu > uRutikuuRu 'promise'

kuRai 'blame' + kuuRu > kuRaikuuRu 'blame'

kuRRam 'fault' + kuuRu > kuRRam kuuRu 'blame'

patil 'reply' + kuuRu > patilkuuRu 'reply; answer'

viTai 'answer' + kuuRu >viTaikuuRu 'answer'

vaazhttu 'greetings' + kuuRu >vaazhttu kuuRu 'greet'

2.      Miscellaneous set of nouns + kuuRu

puRam 'back' + kuuRu > puRamkuuRu ' back bite'

KTTA has listed only one compound formed by making used of kuuRu. The compounds listed under the first type of collocation have not been listed KTTA as their formation is transparent and predictable. All the nouns listed under the first type of collocation can be interupted by case suffixes as well as by plural marker kaL.  The collocational meanings can be capturted by the general meaning "tell X".  So it doubtful whether to consider kuuRu in the above mentioned compound as verbalizer.  Karthikeyan (1983) listed most of them as compounds formed by the verbalizer kuuRu.

Verbalization by koTu

koTu comes under the semantic domain VERBS OF TRANSFERING under the sudomain VERBS OF LOSING.  It primarily denotes giving something to someone; an object is transferred from giver to receiver. It mainly collocates with nouns denoting different types of commmunication.

1.      Subset of nouns denoting different types of communcation

aRikkai 'announcement' + koTu > aRikkai koTu 'announce'

anumati 'permission' + koTu > anumati koTu 'permit'

uttiravaatam 'guarantee' + koTu > uttiravaatam koTu 'guarantee'

uttiravu 'permission' + koTu > uttaravu koTu 'give permission'

uRuti 'promise' + koTu > uRutikoTu 'promise'

opputal 'consent' + koTu > opputal koTu 'give consent'

cammatam 'consent' + koTu > cammatam koTu 'give consent'

patil 'answer; reply' + koTu > patil koTu 'reply'

payiRci 'training' + koTu > payiRci koTu 'train'

peeccu 'talk' + koTu > peeccu koTu 'initiate talk'

tiirppu 'judgement' + koTu > tiirppu kotu 'give judgement'

varaveeRpu 'reception' + koTu > varaveeRpu koTu 'welcome'

vaakku 'word; promise' + koTu > vaakku koTu 'promise'

vaakkuRuti 'promise' + koTu > vaakkuRuti koTu 'promise'

viLakkam 'explanation' + koTu > viLakkam koTu 'explain'

viTai 'answer' + koTu > viTai koTu 'answer'

2.      Subset of nouns denoting visual perception + koTu

kaaTci 'sight' + koTu > kaaTci koTu 'appear'

taricanam 'appearance' + koTu > kaaTci koTu 'appear'

tooRRam 'appearance' + koTu > tooRam koTu 'appear'

3.      Miscellaneous set of nouns + koTu

aTaikkalam 'asylum' + koTu > aTaikkalam koTu ' give asylum'

aatvu 'support' + koTu > aataravu koTu 'support'

itam 'place' + koTu > iTam koTu 'show some consideration'

iiTu 'match; equal' + koTu > iiTu koTu 'match up to; rise equal to'

cellam 'indulgence' + koTu > cellam koTu 'show indulgence'

paRi 'snatching' + koTu > paRi koTu 'lose'

paatukaappu 'protection' + koTu > paatukaappu koTu 'give protection'

Only 19 lexicalized compounds formed by koTu are listed in KTTA. Most of the compounds whose derivation is transparent from the point of view of thier formation and the resultant meaning is not listed in KTTA.  Especially, most of the compounds listed in the first type of collocation is not included in KTTA as thery are transparent and the resultant meanings can be predicted.  They can be interruped by case suffixes as well as, in some cases, by plural kaL. They can be given  the generalized meaning "give X".  Karthikeyan (1983) has listed most of them as compound verbs formed by the verbalizer koTu.

Verbalization by koL

The verbalizer koL is primarily used with the meaning 'contain;hold; possess; have, etc.'.  It comes under the semantic domain VERBS OF TRANSFER. It verbalizes the nouns denoting certain psychological states such as emotions, feelings, desire, etc.  into verbs which express the dynamics of these actions. 

1.      Subset of nouns denoting emtions, feelings, desires, etc.

accam 'fear' + koL> accamkoL 'fear'

amaiti 'peace' + koL > amaitikoL 'be calm'

koopam 'anger' + koL > koopamkoL 'be angry'

veRuppu 'hatred' + koL > veRuppukoL 'feel hatred'

2.      Miscellaneous set of nouns + koL

aaL 'person' + koL > aaTkoL 'adimit as slave'

iruppu 'remaining' + koL > iruppukkoL 'be at ease'

etir 'opposition' + koL > etirkoL 'approach and greet'

karu 'egg' + koL > karukkoL 'become pregnant'

kaavu 'scrifice' + koL > kaavukoL 'accept or take scrifice'

koLLai 'plundering' + koL 'attract'

kuTi 'settment' + koL > kuTikoL 'take up abode'

kai 'hand' + koL > kaikkoL 'take to'

ndilai 'state' + koL > ndilaikoL 'come to settledown'

pangku 'part' + koL > pangkukoL 'take part'

paLLi 'lying' + koL > paLLikoL 'be resting'

manam 'mind' + koL > manangkoL 'take into consideration'

meel 'over' + koL > meeRkoL 'conduct something'

maiyam 'centre' + koL > maiyangkoL 'be centred'

The formation of compound verbs by adding koL to the first set of nouns listed above appears to be  a productive and predictable process and so the resultant compound verbs are not listed in KTTA.  KTTA lists only those verbs which are listed under second type that  are formed by adding koL to an unpredictable set of miscellaneous nouns.  Out of 47 compound verbs formed by the vebalizer koL, only 19 are formed by the worformation rule N + koL > V and 28 are formed by the lexicalization of the combination Past participle form of a main verb with  koL.

            Past Participle form of a verb + koL

            azhaittu 'having invited' + koL > azhaittukkoL 'take along'

            aaNTu 'having ruled' + koL > aaNTukoL 'accept as a slave'

            kaTTi 'having tied' + koL > kaTTikkoL 'marry'

            kaaTti 'having shown' + koL > kaaTTikkoL '           

Verbalization by  cey

The major meaning of the verb cey is 'do'. Among the verbalizers cey appears to be more widely used in the formation of compound verbs. It gets collocated with a number of English nouns forming nonce formations to fulfil the need. A few combinatory formations for cey which can be taken as compounds are listed below.

            araycci + cey > araycci  cey 'do research'

            iTaincal 'obstacle' + cey > iTainjcal cey 'disturb'

            uRpatti 'production' + cey > uRpatti cey 'produce'

            viTutalai  ‘release’+ cey > viTutalai cey 'release from captive'

The above listed combinatory forms are transparent with reference to meaning. The total meaning of a constitute can be had from the meanings of the constituents. So they are phrasal in character than compound. These forms are not listed in KTTA. KTTA has listed 36 as N + cey compounds as they are lexicalized at the semantic level.

            avana 'that which is needed' + cey > avana cey 'do what is needed or required'

            urai 'explanatory commentary' + cey > uraicey 'write commentary'

            uruti 'certainty' + cey > uruticey 'confirm; prove'

            ciir 'orderliness' + cey > ciir cey 'repair; put in order'

Verbalization by col

The primary meaning of col is 'say'.  It comes under the semantic domain VERBS OF COMMUNICATION.  It collocates with a number of nouns denoting various aspects of speaking to fom compound verbs. 

            patil 'reply' + col > patil col 'reply'

            poy 'lie' + col > poycol 'lie'

            kuRai 'blame'  + col > kuRaicol '

The folloing formations are listed in KTTA.

            kuRRam 'blame' col > kuRRamcol 'blame'

            kooL 'opinion' + col > kooLcol 'tell tale against someone'

            caaTci 'evidence' + col > caaTcicol  'give tesimony or evidence'

col appears to be a less productive verbalizer.            

Verbalization by taTTu

The verb taTTu as a main verb means 'pat; stroke; strike; tap, etc,'.  It comes under the semantic domain VERBS OF IMPACT.  As a vebalizer it collocates with a few set of nouns to form compound verbs.  KTTA has listed the following as the verbs as they get lexicalized into a simple unit.

acaTu + taTTu > acaTutaTTu 'look foolish'

uru + taTTu > uruttaTTu 'learn by rote'

karai  'bank' + taTTu > karaikaTTu 'run ground'

kuTal 'intestine' + taTTu > push the bowels into place by message'

kai 'hand' + taTTu 'clap'

caaNi 'cowdung' + taTTu > caaNi taTTu 'beat cow-dung into flat round cakes'

            tarai 'land' + taTTu > taraitaTTu 'aground'

            toTai 'thigh' + taTTu > toTaitaTTu 'get ready for fight with gusto'

            jalraa + taTTu > jaalraa taTTu 'toady'

taTTu appears to form compound verbs with certain set of nouns denoting mental attitude.

            aluppu 'tiredness' + taTTu > aluppu taTTu 'become bored'

            aarvam 'interest' + taTTu > aarvamtaTTu 'develop interest'

            veRuppu 'hatredness' + taTTu > veRuppu taTTu 'develop hatredness'

taTTu  with nouns denoting food items which can be made by pating the dough, form compund verbs which denote making of the concerned food items.

            aTai 'rice cake' + taTTu > aTaitaTTu 'make aTai'

            vaTai 'a kind of snack' + taTTu > vaTaitaTTu 'make vaTai'

Verbalization by paTu

paTu primarily means 'fall; touch'.  It is used as a verbalizer in the sense of 'experience'.  paTu is a productive verbalizer as it can form a number of compound verbs with a set of nouns denoting feelings, emotions or mental states.  KTTA lists 58 compound formed by the berbalizer paTu, out of which 55 are fomed by adding paTu to noun bases, 1 is  formed by adding paTu to the noun inflected for il-case and 2 are formed by adding paTu to the past pariciple form of verbs.

            N+ paTu

            anniyam + paTu > anniyappaTu 'get alienated

            iiTu + paTu > iiTupaTu 'engage'

            N-il + paTu

            kaNNil + paTu > kaNNil paTu 'catch one's attention'

            Vpp + paTu

            azhindtu 'having runined' + paTu > azhindtu paTu 'go to rack and ruin'

            iRandtu 'having died' + paTu > iRandtu paTu 'die'

paTu as a productive predictable verbalizer collocates with a set of nouns denoting feelings, emotions, and the like to form compound nouns. Karthikeyan (1983)  groups the nouns which are collocated to paTu to form compound nouns into three: nouns denoting psychological states, nouns denoting physical states and other nouns.  He lists 65 compound verbs formed by adding paTu to the nouns denoting psychological state, physical state and others/

1. Nouns denoting psychological states + paTu

            aaccam 'fear' + paTu > accappaTu 'fear'

            kavalai 'worry' + paTu > kavalaippaTu 'worry'

            candtoocam 'happiness' + paTu > candtoocappaTu 'feel happy'

            poRaamai 'jealous' + paTu > poRamaippaTu ' feel jealous'

            2. Nouns denoting Physical states + paTu

            kaLangkam 'blemish' + paTu > kaLangkappaTu 'be blemished'

            kaayam 'wound' + paTu > kaayappaTu 'be wounded'

            miccam 'remainder' + paTu > miccappaTu 'be surplus'

            veTTu 'cut' + paTu > veTTuppaTu 'be cut'

3.      Other nouns + paTu

akam 'inside' + paTu > akappaTu 'be caught'

kiizh 'below' + paTu > kiizhpaTu 'be controlled'

payan 'usefulness' + paTu > payanpaTu ' be useful'

puRam 'out side' + paTu > puRappaTu 'start'

Verbalization by paTuttu

paTuttu primarily means 'case to suffer; subject one to surrfe'.   As a verbalizer it collocates with a set of nouns by denoting  meaing 'make;cause; transform;subject'. KTTA lists 56 compound verbs formed by the verbalizer paTuttu. which are lexicalized.  Out of 56 only one is formed by adding  paTuttu to the infinitive form of the verb and rest are formed by adding  paTuttu to nouns.

            Infinitive form of a verb + paTuttu

            teriya 'to know' + paTuttu 'clarify'

            N + paTuttu

            atikam 'more' + paTuttu > atikappaTuttu 'increase'

            kuNam 'cure' + paTuttu > kuNappaTuttu 'cure'

            tanimai 'loneliness' + paTuttu > tanimaippaTuttu 'isolate'

            ndinaivu 'thought' + paTuttu > ndinaivu paTuttu 'recollect'

 paTuttu is the transitive form of  paTu.  Like paTu, paTuttu is also a producive verbalizer and forms compound nouns when collocated with a set of nouns which denotes feelings, emotions and the like.  The nouns collocated with paTuttu can also be classified into two: nouns denoting psychological state of mind such as feeling, emotions, etc. and nouns denoting physical state size, countenance, strength, fertility, etc.  Kartikeyan (1983) lists 81 compound verbs formed by combining paTuttu with nouns denoting psychological and physical state.

1.      A set of nouns denoting psychological state of mind such as feelin, emotions, etc.+ paTuttu

avamaanam 'shame' + paTuttu > avamaanappaTuttu 'disgrace'

koopam 'anger' + paTuttu > koopappaTutt 'make angry'

ndinaivu 'thought' + paTuttu > ndinaivu paTuttu 'remind'

payam 'fear' + paTuttu > payappaTuttu 'frighten'

2. A set of nouns denoting physical states

alngkoolam 'disorderliness' + paTuttu > alngkoolappaTuttu '

azhaku 'beauty' + paTuttu > azhakupaTuttu 'beautify'

tuuymai 'cleanliness' + paTuttu > tuuymaippaTuttu 'clean'

virivu 'expansion' + paTuttu > virivu paTuttu 'expand'

Verbalization by paNNu

The primary meaning of pNNu is 'do; perform'.  It is generally used in colloquial speech.  It is synonymous with cey and so many of the nouns which collocates with cey to form compound verbs will collocates with paNNu too to form compound verbs.  The  nouns which collocates with paNNu are generally denote actions or performance.  KTTA has listed 12 compounds of the type N+Verbalizer which are lixicalized to find their place in the dictionary.

            kiraakki 'demand' + paNNu > kirakkipaNNu 'pretend to be busy'

            taacil 'revenue' + paNNu > taacil paNNu 'be at the helm'

            taajaa 'coaxing'+ paNNu > taajaapaNNu 'coax'

ndiccayam 'confirmation' + paNNu > ndiccayam paNNu 'confirm (a marriage allaince)'

Karthikeyan has listed 90 of them.  Many of them are transparent i.e. their meaning can be had from the constituents of the compound.

            aRimukam 'introudction' + paNNu > aRimukam paNNu 'introduce'

            aaraaiycci 'research' + paNNu > aaraaycci paNNu 'do research'

            ottaacai 'help' + paNNu > ottaacai paNNu 'help'

            kalyaaNam 'marriage' + paNNu > kalyaaNam paNNu 'marry'

paNNu, like cey, is also used with many English loans to form compound verb to fulfil the immediate requirement of a speaker.

            aTvais 'advise' +  paNNu > aTvais paNNu 'advise'

            areenj 'arrange' + paNNu > areenj paNNu 'arrange'

            puk 'book' + paNNu > puk paNNu 'book'

            maark 'mark' + paNNu > maark paNNu 'mark'

The use paNNu to form new verbs by collocating it with boath native nouns and English loans promotes it a productive verbalizer.

Verbalization by paar

The parimary meaning of paar is 'see'.  A set of nouns collocates with with paar forming compound verbs.  Karthikeyan has listed only 10 compounds formed by making use of the verbalizer paar.  He has classified the activities denoted by the compounds by taking into account the parts of the body related to the activities.

            Nouns related to eyes + paar

            uLavu + paar > uLavu paar 'spy'

            etir + paar > etir paar 'expect'

            kuRi + paar > kuRipaar 'aim at'

            veeTikkai + paar > veeTikkai paar 'see (carelessly)'

            Nouns related to mouth + paar

            ruci + paar > ruci paar 'taste'

            patam + paar > patam paar 'try the tase; examine the fitness'

            Nouns related to hands + paar

            pazhutu + paar > pazhutu paar 'repair'

            cari 'correctness' + paar > cari paar 'chek'

            Nouns related to works

            uttiyookam 'work' + paar > uttiyookam paar 'be employed'

            veelai 'work'     + paar > veelai paar 'work; be employed'           

KTTA has listed 17 which are lexicalized to enter into the dictionary. Out of them  3 are formed by adding  paar to the pastparticiple  form of a verb and rest are formed by adding  paar to nouns. Out of 14 N + paar combination, one is intervened by a case suffix.

            N+ paar

            aazham 'depth' + paar > aazhampaar 'gauge'

            orukai 'one hand' + paar > orukaipaar 'deal with effectively'

            ndaaTi 'pulse' + paar > ndaaTi paar 'see the pulse'

            paTTi + paar > paTTi paar 'fill the holes, crevices in a surface before painting'   

            N + Case suffix + paar

            kaNNaal + paar > kaNNaal paar 'see with one's own eyes (generally to despel            


            Past participle form of a verb + paar

            eTTi 'having reached' + paar > eTTippaar ' pay a short visit'

            ottu 'being in harmony' + paar > ottuppaar 'compare'

            cuRRi 'having wandered' + paar > cuRRippaar 'inspect; sightsee'

It is not clear whether paar can be considered as a productive verbalizer.  It is possible an N + paar phrase or a Pastparticiple + paar phrase can be lexicalized to be listed in a dictionary due to meaning specialization or extension or idiomatization.

Verbalization by piTi

piTi is primarily used with the meaning 'catch'.  A set of nouns collocates with piTi to form a number of compound verbs.   Karthikeyan has listed 14 of them.  According to him piTi takes certain nouns denoting strong sentiments which are not decirable to form compound verbs.

            aTam + piTi > aTam piTi ' be arrogant'

            piramai + piTi > piramai piTi 'become mad'

            muraNTu 'arrogance' + piTi 'be arrogant'

            veRi 'madness' + piTi > veRipiTi 'become mad'

He further declares that there are certain nouns which when combined with the verblizer piTi, the resulting actions of the compoun verbs indicate strong setntiments.

            cineekam + piTi > cineekam piTi 'cultivate friendship'

            caNTai 'quarrel' + piTi > caNTai piTi 'quarrel'

            cuuTu 'hotness' + piTi > cuuTupiTi 'become hot'

            miccam 'surplus;reminder' + piTi > miccam piTi 'save (as money) gradually'           

KTTA has listed 20 compound verbs formed by the verbalizer piTi.  Out of this 16 are formed by N + piTi combination which are lexicalized to be entered in the dictionary and   4 are formed by past participle form of a verb + piTi combination.

            Pastparticiple form a verb + piTi

            eTTi 'having reached' + piTi > eTTip piTi 'reach out'

            kaTTi 'having tied' + piTi > kaTTip piTi 'hug'

            kaNTu 'having seen' + piTi > kaNTu piTi 'invent'

            viTTu 'having left' + piTi > viTTup piTi 'allow a person to have his own way'

It is not clear whether piTi can be considered as a productive verbalizer.  It is possible an N + piTi phrase or a Pastparticiple + piTi phrase can be lexicalized to be listed in a dictionary due to meaning specialization or extension or idiomatization.           

Verbalization by puri

puri is primarily used with the meaning 'do; perform' .  As a verbalizer, it combines a set of nouns froming compound verbs.  The use of puri as a vebalizer is restricted to written language only.  puri is synonymous with cey in this context. Karthikeyan has listed 18 compounds  by collocating the verbalizer puri with a set of nouns. 

            aruL 'grace' + puri > aruL puri 'do grace'

            aaTci 'rule' + puri > aaTci puri 'rule'

            uuzhiyam 'service' + puri > uuzhiyam puri 'serve'

            maNam 'marriage' + puri > maNam puri 'marry'

KTTA has listed only one compound verb formed by combining the verbalizer puri with a noun.

            paNi + puri > paNi puri 'work'

It appears that the use of puri as a verbalizer is no longer in vogue.  cey takes the place of  puri for forming new compound verbs.

Verbalization by peRu

The primary meaning of peRu is 'get'.   Karthikeyan has listed 18 compounds formed by combining peRu with a set of nouns.  According to him the verb takes nouns denoting certain states other than psychological states. 

uru 'shape' + peRu > uruppeRu 'form'

pukazh 'fame' peRu > pukazh peRu

Verbalization by poo

The primary meaning of poo is 'go'.  It comes under the semantic domain verbs of movement.  It collocates with a set of nouns forming compound verbs. With certain nouns poo will  imply loss of something.   Karthikeyan has listed 6 compound verbs formed by the verbalizer poo.

            kaLavu 'stealing' + poo > kaLavu poo 'be stolen'

            koLLai 'robery' + poo > koLLai poo 'be robed'

            cooram 'adultery' + poo > cooram poo 'commit adultery'           

KTTA has listed 22 compound verbs formed by the verbalizer poo.  Out of this 10 are formed by N + poo combination which are lexicalized to be entered in the dictionary and   12 are formed by past participle form of a verb + poo combination.  Among the N + poo combination some of them carries dative case marker.

            N + poo

            uyir 'life' + poo > uyir poo 'die'

            kuTi 'settlement' + poo > kuTi poo 'move into a house'

            tiruTTu 'theaft' + poo > tiruTTuppoo 'be stolen'

            N + Dative case + poo

            iraNTukku 'two_DAT' + poo > iraNTukkuppoo 'have bowl movement'

            onRukku 'one_DAT' + poo > oRukkuppoo 'urinate'

            kollaikku 'backyard-DAT' + poo > kollaikkuppoo 'defecate'

            veLikku 'ouside_DAT' + poo > veLikkuppoo 'empty bowls'

            Past partciple form + poo

            aTipaTTu 'having beaten' + poo > aTipaTTuppoo 'pale into insignificance'

            ottu 'having in harmony' + poo > ottuppoo 'be in agreement'

            ooTi 'having run' + poo > ooTippoo 'run away'

            keTTu 'have spoiled' + poo > keTTuppoo 'be lost'           

It can be inferred from the above list that poo with certain nouns froms compound verbs and the combination canmot be predicted.  Similarly poo when cobine with certain past participle forms of verbs get lexicalized due to meaning specification or idiomatization.  It appears that poo is not a productive verbalizer which can form nonce compounds with nouns.  But the potentiality of  poo combining with  pastparticiple form of a verb to form compound verb by meaning specification and/or  idiomatization cannot be set aside.

Verbalization by pooTu

pooTu primarily means 'put;drop'.  Like English put, it is a neural verb and get meaning specification only by combining with nouns appearing in the object slot.  Rajendran has listed and classified the cominatory meanings of pooTu with different nouns.  Not all can be taken as compound verbs.  For example,

            malai 'garland' + pooTu > malaipooTu 'garland'

            muTTai 'egg' + pooTu > muTTai pooTu 'lay egg'

            patiayam 'seedling' + pooTu > patikam pooTu 'cultivate seedling'

            taiyal 'stitching' + pooTu > taiyal pooTu 'stitch a torn part or wound'

But the following formation can be considered as compound formation.

            kuuccal 'shout' + pooTu > kuuccal pooTu 'make moise'

            caapam 'curse' + pooTu > caapam pooTu 'curse'

            ooTTu 'vote' + pooTu > ooTTup pooTu 'vote'

            eTai 'weight' + pooTu > eTai pooTu 'weigh'

Demarcating N  + pooTu as a compound and a phrase is not easy.  One can see a gradation of formation from phrase to compound.  Karthikeyan has listed 24 compounds of the verbalizer pooTu.  He has classified the resultant compounds of pooTu into those associated with noise and speech acts, hands, body and mind.

            Noise and speech act

            ataTTal 'threatening' + pooTu > ataTTal pooTu 'threaten'

            uttaravu 'order' + pooTu > uttaravu pooTu 'order'

            cattam 'noise' + pooTu > cattam pooTu 'shout'

            matippu 'evaluation + pooTu > matippu pooTu 'evaluvate'


            ooTTu 'vote' + pooTu > ooTTup pooTu 'vote'

            kuRi 'mark' + pooTu > kuRipooTu 'mark'

            kumpiTu 'salute' + pooTu > kumpiTu pooTu 'salute'

            pangku 'share' + pooTu > pangku pooTu 'share'


            aaTTam 'dancing' + pooTu > aaTTam pooTu 'dance'

kummaaLam 'jumping and romping' + pooTu > kummaaLam pooTu 'jump and romp about'

koTTam 'jumping and romping' + pooTu > koTTam pooTu 'jump and romp about'


            tiTTam 'plan' + pooTu > tiTTam pooTu 'plan'

The classification the compounds as those related to hands, body and mind do not serve any purpose, as many action can be associated with hands, body and mind.  KTTA has listed 56 compounds formed by the verbalizer pooTu which find their way into the dictionary due to specification or idiomatization of the resultant meaning.  Out of them 8 are formed by the combination of past partciple form of a verb with pooTu, one is formed by the combination of infinitive form of a verb with pooTu and the rest 47 are formed by combining a noun with pooTu.  Among N + pooTu combination there are nouns carrying case suffixes, espcecially locative il.

            N + pooTu

            acai 'move' + pooTu  > acai pooTu 'cud chew'

            aTi 'beat' + pooTu > aTi pooTu 'broach cleverly'

            iTam 'place' + pooTu > iTam pooTu 'block a seat'

            ilai 'leaf' + pooTu > ilaipooTu 'prepare to serve food'

            N + case suffix + pooTu

            uTaippu 'breach' + il + pooTu > uTaippil pooTu 'throw out'

            kiTappu 'lying' + il + pooTu > kiTappil pooTu 'put in cold stroage'        

            N + case suffix + post position + pooTu

            kaikkuL 'hand-DAT_in + pooTu 'have someone in one's pocket'

            Past participle form + pooTu

            eTTi 'having reached' + pooTu > eTTippooTu 'quicken (pace with long stepts)

            cuRRi 'having rotated' + pooTu > cuRRippooTu 'ward oof the effect of evil eye'

            taLLi 'having pushed' + pooTu > taLLippootu 'postpone'

tuukki 'having lifted' + vaari 'having scooped' + pooTu > tuukkivaari pootu 'be startled'

            Infinitive form + pooTu

aaRa  'to cool' + pooTu > aaRappooTu 'defer (something until the provlem loses its uregency)   '

The compounds of pooTu listed in KTTA reveal that a number of phrases got lexicalized due to meaing change and idiomatization to find their place in the dictionary.  pooTu appears to be a potentential verbalizer as a number of compound verbs are formed by making use of it.

Verbalization by muuTTu

The primary meaning of muTTu is 'make; cause'.  Karthikeyan has not listed it as a verbalizer.  KTTA has listed only two compounds formed by the verbalizer. 

            kiccukkiccu 'tickling sensation' + muuTTu > kiccukkiccu muuTTu 'tickle'

            kooL 'telling tale' + muuTTu > kooL muuTTu 'tell tale'

Though only two forms have been listed as compounds in KTTA, it appears that muuTTu has the potnetiality to form compound verbs.

Verbalization by vaa

The primary meaing of vaa is 'come'. It falls under the semantic domain verbs of movement.  Karthikeyan does not list it as a verbalizer.   KTTA has listed 16 compound verbs formed by vaa.  Some of them are formed by adding the compound verb koNTuvaa with N inflected for dative.

            N + vaa

            kai + vaa > kaivaa 'be gifted with'

            N + Dative + vaa

            vayatukku 'age_DAT' + vaa > vayatukku vaa ' come to age as girls'

            vazhikku 'way_DAt' + vaa > vazhikku vaa 'confirm to one's ways'

            Past partciple + vaa

            koNTu 'having had' + vaa > koNTu vaa 'bring'

            N + Dative + koNTuvaa

vazhikku 'way_DAT' + koNTuvaa > vazhikku koNTuvaa 'bring someone into line'

            munnukku 'front_DAT' + koNTuvaa > munnukku koNTuvaa 'cause to come up'

            N + koNTuvaa

            veLi 'out side' + koNTuvaa ' bring out'

            Past participle + koNTu vaa

parindtu 'having showed pity' + koNTu vaa > parindtu koNTu vaa offer one's sympathy'

            paRRi 'having caught' + koNTu vaa > paRRikkoNTuvaa 'get enraged'

It appears that vaa is not a potential verbalizer.  koNTuvaa appears to be a potential vebalizer. 

Verbalization by vaangku

The primary meaning of vaangku is 'get'.  Karthikeyan has not listed it under verbalizer.  KTTA has listed 10 compounds formed by vaangku.    Two of them are formed by Past participle + vaangku combination.  Among compounds formed by N + vaangku combination, some of the nouns carry the accusative case marker ai or locative canse marker il.  The formation of compound verbs from the phrases of the type N + case + vaangku is a process of lexicalization due to meaing specification and idiomatization.

            N + vaangku

            kaaRRu 'air' + vaangku > kaaRRuvaangku 'enjoy fresh air'

            vakkaalattu ' ' + vaangku > vakkaalattu vaangku 'hold a brief for'                       

            N + Accusative + vaangku

            uyirai 'life_ACC' + vaangku > uyirai vaangku 'take a toll of life'

            talaiyai 'head_ACC + vaangku >

            maanattai ' ' + vaangku > maanattai vaangku 'cause or bring disgrace'

            N + Locative + vaangku

            kaatil 'ear_LOC' + vaangku > kaatil vaangku '

vangku does not appear to be a potential vebalizer capable of forming nonce compound verbs.

Verbalization by viTu

viTu primarily means 'let out; let to go; leave'.  It collocates with a set of nouns forming compound verbs. viTu gives different shades of meaning depending on the nouns with which it collocates (Rajendran, 1978: 326-331).           

            iTam 'place' + viTu > iTam viTu 'leave space'

            taNNiir 'water' + viTu > taNNiir viTu 'pour water'

            ampu 'arrow' + viTu > amput viTu 'shoot an arrow'

            muLai 'sprout' + viTu > muLai viTu 'sprout'

 Karthikeyan has listed 8 compounds formed by the verbalizer viTu . According to him the nouns which collocate with viTu  to form compounds comprise of a set of nouns denoting psychological actions, involving letting out of air, sound, etc and a set of nouns denoting speech act such as invitation, announcement, etc.

            Nouns denoting letting out of air, sound, etc.  + viTu

            eeppam 'belch' + viTu > eeppam viTu 'belch'

            kuRaTTai 'snore' + viTu > kuRaTTai viTu 'snore'

            muuccu 'breath' + viTu > muuccu viTu 'breathe'

            ndooTTam 'sight' + viTu > ndooTTam viTu 'watch'

            Nouns denoting speech act + viTu

            azaippu + viTu > azaippu viTu 'invite'

            aRikkai + viTu > aRikkai viTu 'announce'

            eccarikkai 'warning; + viTu > eccarikkai viTu 'warn'

            cavaal 'challenge' + viTu > cavaal viTu 'challenge'

KTTA has listed 27  compound verbs formed by this verbalizer.  Out of this 18 are formed by the combination type 'N + viTu', 8 are formed by the combination type 'Pastparticiple + viTu' and 1 is formed by the combination 'Infinitive + viTu'.

            N +  viTu

            uyir 'life' + viTu >uyirviTu 'give up life'

            katai 'story' + viTu > katai viTu 'spin a yarn'

            kuLir 'coldness' + viTu > kuLir viTu 'outgrow fear'           

            Past partciple + viTu

            eTuttu 'taving taken' + viTu > eTuttu viTu 'give an exaggerated account'

            kai 'hand' + tuukki  'having lifted' + viTu > kaitukki viTu 'rescue from sinking'

            koNTu 'having had' + viTu > koNTu viTu 'take someone to a place'

            paarttu 'having seen' + viTu > paarttu viTu 'do something'

            Infinitive + viTu

            tavaRa 'to loose' + viTu > tavaRaviTu 'miss'

viTu appears to be a productive verbalizer as it is capable of forming nonce compounds to fill the new requirement.  Also certain Past patciple + viTu combination has the potential enough to get lexicalized by meaning specification and idiomatization.

Verbalization by vai

The primary meaing of vai is 'put; place'.  It collocates with a set of nouns forming compound verbs.   vai also is a neutral verb and it get its meaning specified when it collocates wtih nouns which appears in its object slot (Rajendran, 1978: 323-326).   Ofcourse, not all N+ vai combination can be taken as compound verbs.           

            taaTi 'beard' + vai > taaTi vai ' keep beard'

            paasam 'love' + vai > paasam 'have love'

            cooRu 'cooked rice' + vai > cooRu vai 'cook rice'

            ceTi 'plant' +  vai > ceTivai 'plant'

            viiTu 'house' + vai > viiTu vai 'construct a house'

            paaTTu 'song' + vai > paaTTu vai 'tune for song'

            pangku 'share' + vai > pangku vai 'share'

            tii 'fire' + vai > tiivai 'burn'

Karthikeyan has listed 7 verbs formed by the verbalizer vai.  A set of nouns which imply 'depositing as security for repayment'  collocates with vai to form compound verbs. 

            aTamaanam  'pledge' + vai > aTamaanam vai 'pledge'

            aTaku 'pawn' + vai > aTaku vai 'pawn'

            iTTu 'pawn' + vai > iiTu vai  'pawn'

            paNayam 'pledge' + vai > paNayam vai 'pledge'           

KTTA has listed 35 compound verbs formed by the verbalizer vai out of which 19 belong to the combination 'N + vai', 13 belong to the combination 'Pastpartciple form + vai', and 3 belong to the combination 'Intitive form + vai'. 

            N + vai

            akala 'wide' kaal 'leg' + vai > akalakkaal vai 'stretch beyond one's means'

ulai 'vessel with water water on an oven' + vai > ulaivai 'set vessel of water on an oven'

kai 'hand' + vai > kaivai 'embezzle'

koLLi + vai > koLLi vai 'light a funeral fire'

Past participle form + vai

otukku 'having  + vai > otukki vai 'exclude'

kaatil 'ear_LOC' + pooTTu 'having put + vai > kaatil pooTTuvai 'put in a word'

koTuttu 'having given' + vai > koTuttuvai 'merit something by one's past deeds'

ceerttu 'having joined' + vai > ceerttu vai 'reconcile'

Infinitive form + vai

takka 'to suit' + vai > takkavai 'retain'

paTikka 'to learn' + vai > paTikkavai 'educate'

paRRa 'to catch' + vai > paRRavai 'light'

vai appears at the outset that it is not a productive vebalizer; but vai has the potential to form nonce compounds when N + vai, Pastpartciple + vai and Infinitive + vai get lexicalized due to meaning specialization and idiomatization. 

7. Conclusion.

Tamil builds up its stock of verbs, not by suffixation but by compounding a noun with a verb, which can be called as a verbalizer.  Suffixation which was a process in the formation of verbs in the past is no longer in vogue now. Tamil has only a limited number of basic verbs or simple verbs.  During its days of contact with Sanskrit, Tamil was piling up its verb stock by borrowing verbs from Sanskrit.  It made use of a process of reduction and suffixation by which it converted the Sanskrit nouns into verbs (Example: pirayaaNam ‘travel (N)’ + i > pirayaaNi ‘travel’).  When the borrowing from Sanskrit to Tamil is discouraged, Tamil resort to coin new verbs by the process of compounding.  The N + V combination is a productive process of forming new verbs from the already existing stock of verbs and nouns.  Interestingly, not all the verbs can be used as verbalizers to form compound verbs.  Tamil has made use of only a handful of verbs, say nearly 40 verbs, as verbalizers.  Some of verbalizers are productively exploited, whereas some are not exploited to that extent.  Generally the verbs of neutral type or unspecified type such as cey ‘do’, aTi ‘beat’, iTu ‘put’ pooTu ‘put’, etc. are manipulated as verbalizers.  Some of the vebalizers are still used as verbalizers productively and some have ceased to be used as verbalizers.  The verbalizers come handy while making verbs from English.  The degree by which the nouns and verbs of  N + V combination are cohesive vary from tightly held to loosely held.  The combination swings between a compound and a phrase. Most of the by-products of this combination get lexicalized and thus find their way into a dictionary. The combinatory meaning vary from transparent to idiosyncratic.  The constraints involved in the combination are difficult to be accounted by rules.



S. Rajendran, Ph.D.
Department of Linguistics
Tamil University
Thanjavur 613 005
Tamilnadu, India

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