Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow

Volume 10 : 7 July 2010
ISSN 1930-2940

Managing Editor: M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
Editors: B. Mallikarjun, Ph.D.
         Sam Mohanlal, Ph.D.
         B. A. Sharada, Ph.D.
         A. R. Fatihi, Ph.D.
         Lakhan Gusain, Ph.D.
         K. Karunakaran, Ph.D.
         Jennifer Marie Bayer, Ph.D.
         S. M. Ravichandran, Ph.D.



  • We seek your support to meet the expenses relating to the formatting of articles and books, maintaining and running the journal through hosting, correrspondences, etc.Please write to the Editor in his e-mail address to find out how you can support this journal. Thank you. Thirumalai, Editor.




  • E-mail your articles and book-length reports in Microsoft Word to
  • Contributors from South Asia may send their articles to
    B. Mallikarjun,
    Central Institute of Indian Languages,
    Mysore 570006, India
    or e-mail to
  • Your articles and booklength reports should be written following the APA, MLA, LSA, or IJDL Stylesheet.
  • The Editorial Board has the right to accept, reject, or suggest modifications to the articles submitted for publication, and to make suitable stylistic adjustments. High quality, academic integrity, ethics and morals are expected from the authors and discussants.

Copyright © 2009
M. S. Thirumalai


EAT Expressions in Manipuri

N. Pramodini, Ph.D.


The consumption verb ca- 'eat' in Manipuri is a rich source of metaphorical extensions into a variety of cognate semantic domains. Prototypical ca- 'eat' metaphors encode overcoming/control of a patient or theme by an animate/inanimate agent (and part experiencer) functioning as subject, e.g., əy cey care 'I got beating ( I ate a stick)', epəl tin care 'Insect bit the apple' (Insect ate the apple), 'ma sen yamnə cay 'He takes a lot of bribe (He eats a lot of money)'. manə əygi koksi care 'He harasses me a lot (He eats my head)', əygi unsa ca-thetle' My skin is lacerated (My skin has been eaten)'.

Thus, the metaphorical overcome and undergo outputs are often maximally distinct in meaning, and these correlations are directly inherited from their differing physical/ontological properties. The highly multifaceted nature of 'eat' event gives rise to interesting clausal properties of these predicates. Thus this verb is a source for a large number of figurative uses in Manipuri with meanings associated with such as consumption of non-edible items, torment, alignment, as well as participating in idiomatic expressions which can be quite opaque semantically. This work is important in that it looks at fine details of structure and conceptualization in Manipuri not often covered in the study of grammars.


This paper explores the conceptualizations of basic and other activities of eating and the effects they have on Manipuri and how they are coded, and what sorts of metaphorically-based grammaticalizations develop from the forms used to code these activities. This work looks at fine details of structure and conceptualization Manipuri not often covered in standard grammars.

Basic verbs often have multiple usages in a given language. The EAT verb in Manipuri is such a verb. The study done by Pardeshi, et al. (2006) on the verb EAT discusses its several extension with various meanings, including a semantic network diagram that tries to capture the correlations and development pathways. The paper by Pardeshi, et al. focuses on a typological overview of the distribution of the extended usages and semantic range that covers by the verb EAT. The languages discussed in the study are selected from Euro-asia: Persia, Tajik, Turkish, Uzbek, Kyrgyz, Kashmiri, Hindi-Urdu, Bengali, Marathi, Gujarati, Telugu, Sinhale, Mongolia, Korean, Japanese, Thai, Veitnamese, Khmer and Mandarin.

However, Kiryu (2008) argues that their study does not contain any languages from another linguistic group, the Tibeto-Burman family in Asia which may be the single linguistic group that stretches from the Far East in China to the Middle East in Pakistan. This group covers a wide variety of languages sub-groups that are worth studying from typological point of view. Kiryu (ibid) made an extensive study of the EAT expressions in Kathmandu Newar, which surely is an important welcome addition to enrich pardeshi et al.'s work from a typological perspective. In line with the study already carried out in other languages, the aim of this paper is to study the multiple usages of the verb EAT cab? by examining examples from Manipuri, a Tibeto-Burman language spoken in Manipuri valley. Before we go to the analysis of the EAT expressions in Manipuri, a brief overview of the analysis of typological distribution of the extended usage and the semantic range that the expression EAT covers is in order.

This is only the beginning part of the article. PLEASE CLICK HERE TO READ THE ARTICLE IN PRINTER-FRIENDLY VERSION.

EAT Expressions in Manipuri | Learning from Movies - 'Slumdog Millionaire' and Language Awareness | Maternal Interaction and Verbal Input in Normal and Hearing Impaired Children | Role of L2 Motivation and the Performance of Intermediate Students in the English (L2) Exams in Pakistan | Problems in Ph.D. English Degree Programme in Pakistan - The Issue of Quality Assurance | Using Technology in the English Language Classroom | Teaching Literature through Language - Some Considerations | e-Learning of Japanese Pictography - Some Perspectives | Is It a Language Worth Researching? Ethnographic Challenges in the Study of Pahari Language | Using a Reading Material for Interactive Reading | Importance of Task-Based Teaching in Second Language Acquisition - A Review | Skill Enhancement Techniques - The Necessary Tools for the Indian Management Students | African American Literature and Ishmael Reed's Novels - Hoodism | Instances of Code Switching in Indian Television Serials | The Role of Compounding in Technical English Prescribed for Engineering Students in Tamilnadu | Polite Request Strategies as Produced by Yemeni EFL Learners | Manju Kapoor's Difficult Daughters - A Saga of Feminist Autonomy and Separate Identity | Reflections on Partition Literature - A Comparative Analysis of Ice Candy Man and Train to Pakistan | Mother Tongue! The Neglected Resource for English Language Teaching And Learning | Breaking the Good Mother Myths - A Study of the Novels of Amy Tan | Effect of Teachers' Academic Qualification on Students' L2 Performance at the Secondary Level | What Is Most Important? Fluency or Accuracy? Is Learning a Second Language a Conscious Process? | Let Us Learn from Our Standard 1 Textbook, Again! - A Brief Note on the New Standard 1 Tamil Textbook in Tamilnadu | Eugene O' Neill's The Hairy Ape - An American Expressionistic Play | A PRINT VERSION OF ALL THE PAPERS OF JULY 2010 ISSUE IN BOOK FORMAT | HOME PAGE of July 2010 Issue | HOME PAGE | CONTACT EDITOR

N. Pramodini, Ph.D.
Department of Linguistics
Manipur University
Imphal 795001
Manipur, India

  • Send your articles
    as an attachment
    to your e-mail to
  • Please ensure that your name, academic degrees, institutional affiliation and institutional address, and your e-mail address are all given in the first page of your article. Also include a declaration that your article or work submitted for publication in LANGUAGE IN INDIA is an original work by you and that you have duly acknolwedged the work or works of others you either cited or used in writing your articles, etc. Remember that by maintaining academic integrity we not only do the right thing but also help the growth, development and recognition of Indian scholarship.