Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow

Volume 10 : 7 July 2010
ISSN 1930-2940

Managing Editor: M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
Editors: B. Mallikarjun, Ph.D.
         Sam Mohanlal, Ph.D.
         B. A. Sharada, Ph.D.
         A. R. Fatihi, Ph.D.
         Lakhan Gusain, Ph.D.
         K. Karunakaran, Ph.D.
         Jennifer Marie Bayer, Ph.D.
         S. M. Ravichandran, Ph.D.



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Effect of Teachers' Academic Qualification on Students'
L2 Performance at the Secondary Level

Umar-ud-Din, M.A., M.Phil., Ph.D. Candidate
M. Kamal Khan, M.A., M.Phil., Ph.D. Candidate
Shahzad Mahmood, M.A., M.Phil., Ph.D. Candidate


This study reports the analysis of the performance of the English Language Teachers (ELTs) and Teachers with Formal Education (TFEs) at secondary level in public high schools. The study shows that ELTs have positive influence on the performance of the students in the final examinations conducted by the board of intermediate and secondary education. We collected the data for present study from three different public schools where ELTs and TFEs were teaching in parallel. The results of the students in their final exam conducted by the board were collected. The results show that those students who receive instruction from the ELTs show better results in the final examinations as compared to those who receive input from the TFEs. The study suggests that the practice of inducting qualified English language teachers at secondary level should continue.


The quality of education is directly related to the quality of instruction in the classrooms. It is a fact that the academic qualifications, knowledge of the subject matter, competence, and skills of teaching and the commitment of the teacher have effective impact on the teaching learning process (National Education Policy 1998-2010). Quality improvement in education depends upon proper training of teachers. The teachers cannot play any of the roles unless properly trained (Yadved and Singh, 1988).

Teaching is an art. It can be refined by training and practice. The availability of competent teachers is central in the reconstruction of the educational system. English has acquired the status of a global language (Crystal, 1997). Keeping in view the growing need and importance of English language in every walk of life, English is made a compulsory subject in Pakistan from the very beginning of the academic career. This increasingly necessitates good quality initial preparation for non-native speaker teachers in the school system.

Commenting upon the place of English language in Pakistan, Baumgardner (1993:43) said: "English in Pakistan is used as an official and second language. It is spoken and used by a relatively small but extremely influential portion of country's population in the domain of government administration." Thus, in Pakistan English language is widely used by the elite and the ruling class. Most of the official correspondence and documentation takes place in English. For the ruling elite and the bureaucracy (highly educated), English is the second language. Very few Pakistanis have the privilege of acquiring English as the first language. Majority of the educated community learn English as a foreign language.

English Teaching and Learning in Pakistan

English is taught as a compulsory subject from primary to graduation level. In the elite public and private schools (Cadet Colleges, Beaconhouse School System, City Schools, etc.), English is taught as a compulsory subject and also the whole teaching learning process is carried out in English language. In other words, English is also the medium of instruction in these schools.

This enables the students of these schools to learn English in an environment where most of the interaction between the teacher and the students is in English. As a result, the students of these elite schools are more proficient in English and perform well in the final examinations.

In the Urdu or vernacular medium schools, however, the teaching of English is done somewhat differently and the proficiency in the language is somewhat inadequate. The traditional grammar translation method is favourite with the teachers and there is hardly any exposure to English language inside or outside the class. Most of the activities in the class are done in the vernacular or the mother tongue. Even English language is explained through Urdu or the vernaculars. The focus of the teaching learning process is how to secure good grades/scores in the final examination. The students resort to memorization and cramming. The teacher is the facilitator of examinations rather than of learning. The students memorize, translate and retranslate and, finally reproduce the crammed information or knowledge in the final examinations. No creativity is witnessed on the part of the students from these vernacular medium schools.

This is only the beginning part of the article. PLEASE CLICK HERE TO READ THE ARTICLE IN PRINTER-FRIENDLY VERSION.

EAT Expressions in Manipuri | Learning from Movies - 'Slumdog Millionaire' and Language Awareness | Maternal Interaction and Verbal Input in Normal and Hearing Impaired Children | Role of L2 Motivation and the Performance of Intermediate Students in the English (L2) Exams in Pakistan | Problems in Ph.D. English Degree Programme in Pakistan - The Issue of Quality Assurance | Using Technology in the English Language Classroom | Teaching Literature through Language - Some Considerations | e-Learning of Japanese Pictography - Some Perspectives | Is It a Language Worth Researching? Ethnographic Challenges in the Study of Pahari Language | Using a Reading Material for Interactive Reading | Importance of Task-Based Teaching in Second Language Acquisition - A Review | Skill Enhancement Techniques - The Necessary Tools for the Indian Management Students | African American Literature and Ishmael Reed's Novels - Hoodism | Instances of Code Switching in Indian Television Serials | The Role of Compounding in Technical English Prescribed for Engineering Students in Tamilnadu | Polite Request Strategies as Produced by Yemeni EFL Learners | Manju Kapoor's Difficult Daughters - A Saga of Feminist Autonomy and Separate Identity | Reflections on Partition Literature - A Comparative Analysis of Ice Candy Man and Train to Pakistan | Mother Tongue! The Neglected Resource for English Language Teaching And Learning | Breaking the Good Mother Myths - A Study of the Novels of Amy Tan | Effect of Teachers' Academic Qualification on Students' L2 Performance at the Secondary Level | What Is Most Important? Fluency or Accuracy? Is Learning a Second Language a Conscious Process? | Let Us Learn from Our Standard 1 Textbook, Again! - A Brief Note on the New Standard 1 Tamil Textbook in Tamilnadu | Eugene O' Neill's The Hairy Ape - An American Expressionistic Play | A PRINT VERSION OF ALL THE PAPERS OF JULY 2010 ISSUE IN BOOK FORMAT | HOME PAGE of July 2010 Issue | HOME PAGE | CONTACT EDITOR

Umar-ud-Din, M.A., M.Phil., Ph.D. Participant (Applied Linguistics)

Muhammad Kamal Khan, M.A., M.Phil., Ph.D. Participant (Applied Linguistics)

Shahzad Mahmood, M.A., M.Phil., Ph.D. Participant (Applied Linguistics)

Department of English Language and Literature
UMT, Lahore
Punjab, Pakistan
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