Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow

Volume 11 : 5 May 2011
ISSN 1930-2940

Managing Editor: M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
Editors: B. Mallikarjun, Ph.D.
         Sam Mohanlal, Ph.D.
         B. A. Sharada, Ph.D.
         A. R. Fatihi, Ph.D.
         Lakhan Gusain, Ph.D.
         Jennifer Marie Bayer, Ph.D.
         S. M. Ravichandran, Ph.D.
         G. Baskaran, Ph.D.
         L. Ramamoorthy, Ph.D.





  • E-mail your articles and book-length reports in Microsoft Word to
  • Contributors from South Asia may e-mail their articles to
    B. Mallikarjun,
    Central Institute of Indian Languages,
    Mysore 570006, India
  • Your articles and book-length reports should be written following the APA, MLA, LSA, or IJDL Stylesheet.
  • The Editorial Board has the right to accept, reject, or suggest modifications to the articles submitted for publication, and to make suitable stylistic adjustments. High quality, academic integrity, ethics and morals are expected from the authors and discussants.

Copyright © 2010
M. S. Thirumalai

Custom Search

The Preference of Self Esteem Needs of
Secondary School Students

Abdul Ghafoor Nasir, Ph.D. Scholar
Muhammad Mirza, Ph.D.
Muhammad Naseer Ud Din, Ph.D.
Muhammad Ishfaq Ud Din, M.Sc.


The present study was designed to identify the preferences of self-esteem needs of the secondary school students, because, in Pakistan, it was an urgent need to discover, to purify, to determine and to diagnose the constructive preferences of self-esteem needs which might serve as pre-requisites for the successful development of curriculum planning, material production, administrative and supervisory functions, etc.

The data were collected from 10% of students of urban & rural secondary schools. Due to lack of an adequate instrument to measure the preferences of self-esteem needs, a Self-Reporting Rating Scale (SRRS) was developed. This instrument included items constructed on the basis of Likert scale. The questionnaires, based on "SRRS" according to the self-esteem needs of the students, were delivered to sample students from 248 urban and 198 rural secondary schools of the district Faisalabad. The returns from students were 446.

Keywords: Exploring the preferences of self-esteem needs curriculum development.


To derive a set of student's self-esteem needs for the study, researchers drew from a variety of studies and psychological theories. As a foundation, researchers used the following studies: The Commission on the Secondary School Curriculum (1932) in America, Doane's Study of Needs (1942:43-44), The Commission on Human Relation Study (1942) which depicted a list of adolescents through case studies, interviews and observations, The Educational Policies Commission Imperative Needs of Youth 1944 (revised in 1952), which recommended a list of youth need, a derived list of needs by Luella Cole (1988:258) was adopted for the identification of needs, Havighursts (1950:1-4), Developmental tasks and the Developmental Tasks which were derived by a Committee of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (1950) in America, and Lurry and Alberty (1957:60) which listed sixteen areas.

The reflection of biological and psychological theories was adopted as a basic ground for the study. Henry A. Murray's (1938:152-266) "A Need Theory of Personality" drew a biological sketch of human needs. Researchers also drew from Maslow's (1970:35-51) A Humanistic Theory of Personality which presented a novel hierarchical theory of Human needs for the identification of students needs. Bloom (1956:1-4) and Krathwohl, (1964) analyzed the cognitive domain and affective domain and psychomotor domain for knowledge and understanding perception.

Focus of the Study

The information about the nature of the learner is an important source for curriculum development. So, the focus of the study is upon the identification of self- esteem needs, which are always imperative and which may influence curriculum development. The identification of those preferences of self-esteem needs is also necessary before a suitable strategy for the process of development of the curriculum starts because the curriculum is the nerve system of education.

This is only the beginning part of the article. PLEASE CLICK HERE TO READ THE ARTICLE IN PRINTER-FRIENDLY VERSION.

Abdul Ghafoor Nasir, Ph.D. Scholar
Govt. High School Samundri
Samundri, Faisalabad

Muhammad Mirza, Ph.D.
Professor of Education (Retired)
Govt. College of Education for Men, Lahore
Lahore - Pakistan

Muhammad Naseer Ud Din, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
Institute of Education and Research
Kohat University and Science Technology - (KUST)
Kohat- Khyber Pakthunkawa

Muhammad Ishfaq Ud Din, M.Sc.
Department of Sociology
Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU)

Custom Search

  • Click Here to Go to Creative Writing Section

  • Send your articles
    as an attachment
    to your e-mail to
  • Please ensure that your name, academic degrees, institutional affiliation and institutional address, and your e-mail address are all given in the first page of your article. Also include a declaration that your article or work submitted for publication in LANGUAGE IN INDIA is an original work by you and that you have duly acknowledged the work or works of others you either cited or used in writing your articles, etc. Remember that by maintaining academic integrity we not only do the right thing but also help the growth, development and recognition of Indian scholarship.