Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow

Volume 10 : 5 May 2010
ISSN 1930-2940

Managing Editor: M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
Editors: B. Mallikarjun, Ph.D.
         Sam Mohanlal, Ph.D.
         B. A. Sharada, Ph.D.
         A. R. Fatihi, Ph.D.
         Lakhan Gusain, Ph.D.
         K. Karunakaran, Ph.D.
         Jennifer Marie Bayer, Ph.D.
         S. M. Ravichandran, Ph.D.



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A Comparative Study of the Language Learning Strategies Used by the Students of Formal and Non-Formal Systems of Education in Pakistan

Aijaz Ahmed Gujjar, Ph.D. Scholar
Bushra Naoreen, Ph.D. Scholar
Saima Aslam, M.A.


Formal and Non-Formal education differ in many ways. Whereas in the formal settings the learner learns through face to face interaction with a teacher, in the Non-Formal system the learner has to learn independently of the classroom. The learner, in a Non-Formal education programme, depends on the sent material and the workshops arranged by the institution. There is also the use of the information technology in Non-Formal education. Thus Non-Formal education throws new challenges and a wide array of opportunities to the students. This would be especially so as far as language learning in Non-Formal education is concerned, because of the fact that the learners have more chances to have experiment with their language.

The present study attempts to compare the language learning strategies of formal and non-formal graduate students. It is descriptive in nature. In order to get the desired end, four hundred graduate students. Two hundred each from Formal and Non-Formal systems of education were selected as sample and a questionnaire with fifty items was constructed (Likert Scale) and pilot tested. The reliability of the research tool was 0.990 (Cornbach's Alpha).

The questionnaire was divided into seven parameters: memory strategies, cognitive strategies, compensatory strategies, meta-cognitive, affective strategies, social strategies and overall strategies.

The study reports that there is a statistically significant relationship between reported frequency of language learning strategy use and the system of education. The students from non-formal system of education are significantly better on using the compensatory strategies and the students from formal system of education are significantly better on use of social strategies. On the remaining parameters, namely, memory strategies, cognitive strategies, meta cognitive strategies, affective strategies and overall strategies, no significant difference was found between the students from both the systems. The Non-formal education (Distance education) students reported the use of more language learning strategies than their counterparts in the Formal settings.


With the onset of the post-modern age, there has been a shift in the educational theories and practices throughout the world towards learner-centeredness. It is observed that successful learning depended, to a good extent, on catering to the needs and interests of the learners. For instance, Chickering and Gamson (1991, p.21) reported that "Faculty who show regard for their students' unique interests and talents are likely to facilitate student growth and development in every sphere--academic, social, personal, and vocational."

This is only the beginning part of the article. PLEASE CLICK HERE TO READ THE ARTICLE IN PRINTER-FRIENDLY VERSION.

Interference of Mappila Dialect in the Standard Malayalam Language - with special reference to the writing performance of Primary School Children | Effect of Environmental Education to School Children Through Animation Based Educational Video | Women as Victors of the Social Milieu in Amy Tan's China | A Comparative Study of the Language Learning Strategies Used by the Students of Formal and Non-Formal Systems of Education in Pakistan | New Vistas in Comparative Studies | Comparative Analysis of MA English Results under Annual and Semester system: Quality Assurance in Pakistan | A Virtual Learning Environment in an ESL Classroom in a Technical University in India | When a School Becomes a Pool - What Can We Do to Make Language Learning Interesting to Yemeni Students | Does Number Affect English Pronunciation? | Shashi Tharoor: Transmuting Historical and Mythical Material into Literary Ideas | The Impact of Working Memory on Text Composition in Hearing Impaired Adults | A Study of the ELT Teachers' Perception of Teaching Language through Literature at the Higher Secondary School and Degree Levels in Pakistani Milieu | Some Aspects of Teaching-Learning English as a Second Language | Challenges Encountered by Teachers in Rural Areas and Strategies to Triumph Over | Variation of Voice Onset Time (VOT) in Kannada Language | A Comparative Study on the Efficacy of Two Different Clinical Language Intervention Procedures | Dilemma of Usage and Transmission - A Sociolinguistic Investigation of Dhundi-Pahari in Pakistan | Teaching Beyond the Regular Curriculum | Claustrophobia in Anita Desai's Cry, The Peacock - "From Defeat to Disaster" | Code Mixing and Code Switching in Tamil Proverbs | A Phonetic and Phonological Study of the Consonants of English and Arabic | HOME PAGE of May 2010 Issue | HOME PAGE | CONTACT EDITOR

Aijaz Ahmed Gujjar, Ph.D. Scholar
Department of Education
Federal College of Education
H-9, Islamabad

Bushra Naoreen, Ph.D. Scholar
Department of Education
G. C. University

Saima Aslam, M.A.
Department of Education
G. C. University

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