Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow

Volume 10 : 5 May 2010
ISSN 1930-2940

Managing Editor: M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
Editors: B. Mallikarjun, Ph.D.
         Sam Mohanlal, Ph.D.
         B. A. Sharada, Ph.D.
         A. R. Fatihi, Ph.D.
         Lakhan Gusain, Ph.D.
         K. Karunakaran, Ph.D.
         Jennifer Marie Bayer, Ph.D.
         S. M. Ravichandran, Ph.D.



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The Impact of Working Memory on Text Composition in Hearing Impaired Adults

K. Balaganesan, M.Sc. (Speech & Hearing)
Manisha, M.Sc. (Speech & Hearing)


Working memory involves the temporary storage and manipulation of information that is assumed to be necessary for a wide range of complex cognitive activities. Baddeley and Hitch (1974) proposed that it could be divided into three subsystems: One, the phonological loop providing verbal and acoustic information; a second, the visuo-spatial sketchpad providing its visual equivalent, while both are dependent upon a third attentionally-limited control system, the central executive.

Text production is a complex activity composed of various processes, which tax the storage and processing capacities of working memory in different ways. According to Kellogg (1996), it is possible to predict which writing processes will be hindered when central executive, phonological loop or visuo-spatial capacities are heavily or overloaded. These predictions have been tested in hearing adults (Ransdell & Levy, 1996) and in children (Swanson & Berninger, 1996). The results confirm that the respective capacities of the three registers do indeed bring about specific variations in compositional fluency and/or text quality and length.

Kellogg's Model

The relationship between text production and working memory is explained by Kellogg (1996). Kellogg formalizes the relationships between the various processes involved in text production and the registers of working memory (as defined by Baddeley, 1992).

Kellogg's model postulates the existence of six basic writing processes, paired together to form three different components : Formulation ('Planning' and 'Translating'), 'Execution' ('Programming' and 'Executing') and 'Monitoring' (Reading and Editing).

Three kinds of relationships between these processes and working memory registers are described.

First of all, the processing capacity of the central executive constrains the course of every controlled process (i.e. planning, translating, programming, reading and editing). In the case of beginning writers, the executing process is not sufficiently automatized. It, too, draws on the resources of the central executive.

Secondly, the storage capacity of the phonological loop constrains the linguistic processing involved in sentence production (translating at the lexical and grammatical levels) and in reading the text produced so far.

Thirdly, the storage capacity of the visuo-spatial sketchpad constrains conceptual processing (planning of text content), especially when the text content is concrete and contains figurative language.

Two Consequences

Writing processes and components are implemented iteratively and recursively throughout text production. If their storage and processing capacities are too limited and/or overloaded, the most costly controlled writing processes cease to operate in parallel (Flower and Hayes, 1980). The resulting sequentialization has at least two consequences (Ransdell, Levy, 1996 & Kellogg, 2002): (i) by increasing the length and frequency of the writing pauses, it brings about a general reduction in compositional fluency; (ii) by limiting interactivity between the controlled processes, it reduces opportunities for monitoring the processes as a whole, thereby diminishing the text's conceptual and linguistic quality.

This is only the beginning part of the article. PLEASE CLICK HERE TO READ THE ARTICLE IN PRINTER-FRIENDLY VERSION.

Interference of Mappila Dialect in the Standard Malayalam Language - with special reference to the writing performance of Primary School Children | Effect of Environmental Education to School Children Through Animation Based Educational Video | Women as Victors of the Social Milieu in Amy Tan's China | A Comparative Study of the Language Learning Strategies Used by the Students of Formal and Non-Formal Systems of Education in Pakistan | New Vistas in Comparative Studies | Comparative Analysis of MA English Results under Annual and Semester system: Quality Assurance in Pakistan | A Virtual Learning Environment in an ESL Classroom in a Technical University in India | When a School Becomes a Pool - What Can We Do to Make Language Learning Interesting to Yemeni Students | Does Number Affect English Pronunciation? | Shashi Tharoor: Transmuting Historical and Mythical Material into Literary Ideas | The Impact of Working Memory on Text Composition in Hearing Impaired Adults | A Study of the ELT Teachers' Perception of Teaching Language through Literature at the Higher Secondary School and Degree Levels in Pakistani Milieu | Some Aspects of Teaching-Learning English as a Second Language | Challenges Encountered by Teachers in Rural Areas and Strategies to Triumph Over | Variation of Voice Onset Time (VOT) in Kannada Language | A Comparative Study on the Efficacy of Two Different Clinical Language Intervention Procedures | Dilemma of Usage and Transmission - A Sociolinguistic Investigation of Dhundi-Pahari in Pakistan | Teaching Beyond the Regular Curriculum | Claustrophobia in Anita Desai's Cry, The Peacock - "From Defeat to Disaster" | Code Mixing and Code Switching in Tamil Proverbs | A Phonetic and Phonological Study of the Consonants of English and Arabic | HOME PAGE of May 2010 Issue | HOME PAGE | CONTACT EDITOR

K. Balaganesan, M.Sc. (Speech & Hearing)
Ali Yavar Jung National Institute for the Hearing Handicapped
Manovikas Nagar
Secunderabad 500009
Andhra Pradesh, India

Manisha, M.Sc. (Speech & Hearing)
Hooiser Christian Village
Brownstown, Indiana

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