Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow

Volume 10 : 10 October 2010
ISSN 1930-2940

Managing Editor: M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
Editors: B. Mallikarjun, Ph.D.
         Sam Mohanlal, Ph.D.
         B. A. Sharada, Ph.D.
         A. R. Fatihi, Ph.D.
         Lakhan Gusain, Ph.D.
         K. Karunakaran, Ph.D.
         Jennifer Marie Bayer, Ph.D.
         S. M. Ravichandran, Ph.D.
         G. Baskaran, Ph.D.



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Causes of Social Acceptance of "O" and "A" Level Education System in Pakistan

Umbreen Ishfaq, Ph.D., Ghazala Shaheen, Ph.D.
Aijaz Ahmed Gujjar, M.A., Ph.D. Scholar,
M. Naeemullah, Ph.D. and Sajid Rehman, Ph.D.


The role of education remains the most important factor in the socio-economic development of a country. The population of the study was all O and A level schools, O and A level students, their parents and teachers in Pakistan. The sample of the study included 45 schools, 230 teachers, 450 O and A level students and their parents. The sample of the study was drawn from Islamabad, Lahore, Karachi, Rawalpindi and Peshawar.

For the collection of data, three questionnaires, one each for O and A level students, their parents and the teachers of O and A level were developed. Three structured interviews, i.e., one each for O and A level students, their parents and the teachers were designed.

Data were collected through personal visits. For the analysis of data, percentage and chi square as contingency test were used.

It was concluded through this study that social acceptance of O and A level education system in Pakistan was due to better learning, fair examination system, advanced and better curriculum, easy admission in foreign universities, provision of quality education, better learning environment, knowledge based education system, status symbol for family, flexible scheme of studies, up-to-date, comprehensive and informative courses, international acceptance and recognition, better professional careers and dynamic future for students.

It was also found that O and A level education system was expensive in Pakistan. Majority of the students belong to elite class of society.

Key words: Performance, Curriculum, Career Counseling, Learning, Creative thinking.


In Pakistan, the formal system of education comprises elementary, secondary and tertiary levels. At the secondary level, there are two parallel systems of education, i.e., Pakistani education system (Secondary School Certificate - SSC) and English education system (General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level-GCE O level). At higher secondary level, there are also two parallel system of education one is Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSSC) and other is A level.

The major purpose of this study was to investigate the social acceptance of "O" and "A" level education system and its implications in Pakistan. The main objectives of study were; (1) To investigate the causes of social acceptance of O and A levels, (2) To explore the academic value of O and A level, as viewed by students, parents and teachers.

Education is a vital investment for human and economic development and is influenced by environment within which it exists. Changes in technology, labour market patterns and general global environment, all require policy responses. Traditions, culture and faith all reflect upon the education system and at the same time are also affected by then. The element of continuity and change remains prepetualand it is up to the society to determine the face and direction.

Cultural values of the majority of Pakistanis are derived from Islam. Since an education system reflects and strengthens social cultural and moral values, therefore, Pakistanis' educational intervention has to be based on the core values of religion and faith (Govt. of Pakistan, 2009 a.).

Education is extensively regarded as a route to economic prosperity, being the key to scientific and technological advancement. Hence it plays a pivotal role in human capital formation and a necessary tool for socio-economic growth (Govt. of Pakistan 2009 b.).

This is only the beginning part of the article. PLEASE CLICK HERE TO READ THE ARTICLE IN PRINTER-FRIENDLY VERSION.

English Loanwords in Meiteiron A Linguistic and Sociolinguistic Analysis | A Report on the State of Urdu Literacy in India, 2010 | More Than Meets the Eye Reasons Behind Asian Students' Perceived Passivity in the ESL/EFL Classroom | English for Medical Students of Hodeidah University, Yemen - A Pre-sessional Course | Education as an Indicator for Human Resource Development | Representation of Malaysian Women in Politics | A Modern Approach to Application of Abbreviation and Acronym Strategy for Vocabulary Learning in Second/Foreign Language Learning Procedure | Causes of Social Acceptance of "O" and "A" Level Education System in Pakistan | Pronounce Foreign Words the English way! | Dubhashi and the Colonial Port in Madras Presidency | An Investigation of Davis' Translation of SHAHNAMEH - Rostam and Sohrab Story in Focus | Feminine, Female and Feminist - A Critical Spectrum on Selected Novels by Kamala Markandaya, Shahsi Deshpande and Arundhati Roy | Four-letter Words and the Urdu Learner's Dictionaries in Pakistan | Margaret Atwood's The Blind Assassin - A Study of the Impact of War on Historical and Economic Aspects of the Society | Was Gandhi a True Mahatma? | Omani Women
Are Their Language Skills Good Enough for the Workplace?
| Spread of English Globalisation Threatens English Language Teaching (ELT) in Pakistan | Multiple Intelligences, Blended Learning and the English Teacher | A Micro-Case Study of Vocabulary Acquisition among First Year Engineering Students | Imagery of Wilderness in Margaret Hollingsworth's Islands | The Influence of Learning Environment on Learners' Attitude in a Foreign Language Setting | Caste - Gender Ideology in Gundert's Malayalam-English Dictionary | Development of a Hindi to Punjabi Machine Translation System - A Doctoral Dissertation | A PRINT VERSION OF ALL THE PAPERS OF OCTOBER, 2010 ISSUE IN BOOK FORMAT. | HOME PAGE of October 2010 Issue | HOME PAGE | CONTACT EDITOR

Umbreen Ishfaq, Ph.D.
Ghazala Shaheen, Ph.D.

Aijaz Ahmed Gujjar, M.A., Ph.D. Scholar
Federal College of Education
Islamabad, Pakistan

M. Naeemullah, Ph.D.
Sajid Rehman, Ph.D.

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