AN APPEAL FOR SUPPORT
- We seek your support to meet the expenses relating to the formatting of articles and books, maintaining and running the journal through hosting, correrspondences, etc.Please write to the Editor in his e-mail address email@example.com to find out how you can support this journal.
- Also please use the AMAZON link to buy your books. Even the smallest contribution will go a long way in supporting this journal. Thank you. Thirumalai, Editor.
BOOKS FOR YOU TO READ AND DOWNLOAD FREE!
- The Influence of First Language Grammar (L1) on
the English Language (L2) Writing of Tamil School Students: A Case Study from Malaysia ...
Mahendran Maniam, Ph.D. (ESL)
- Economics of Crime : A Comparative Analysis of the Socio-Economic Conditions of Convicted Female and Male Criminality In Selected Prisons in Tamil Nadu ...
S. Santhanalakshmi, Ph.D.
- Technique as Voyage of Discovery: A Study of the Techniques in Dante's Paradiso ...
Raji Narasimhan, M.A.
- A Critical Study of The Wasteland - Poetry as Metaphor ...
K. R. Vijaya, M.A., M.Phil.
- Language and Literature: An Exposition - Papers Presented in the Karunya University National Seminar ...
Editor: J. Sundar Singh, Ph.D.
- Purism and Language Planning in a Multilingual Context ...
L. Ramamoorthy, Ph.D.
- Papers Presented in the All-India Conference on Multimedia Enhanced Language Teaching - MELT 2009 ...
L. Ramamoorthy, Ph.D. and J.R. Nirmala, Ph.D.
- A Phonological Study of Variety of English Spoken by Oriya Speakers in Western Orissa - A Doctoral Dissertation ... Arun K. Behera, Ph.D.
- Phonological Analysis of English Phonotactics of
Syllable Initial and Final Consonant Clusters by Yemeni Speakers of English ... Abdulghani. M. A. Al-Shuaibi, M.A.
- A Study of Structural Duplication in Tamil and Telugu - A Doctoral Dissertation ... Parimalagantham, Ph.D.
- The Politics of Survival in the Novels of Margaret Atwood ... Pauline Das, Ph.D.
- Nonverbal Communication in Tamil Novels -
A Book in Tamil ... M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
Girish Karnad as a Modern Indian Dramatist - A Study ...
B. Reena, M.A., M.Phil.
- A Study of English Loan Words in Selected Bahasa Melayu Newspaper Articles...
Shamimah Binti Haja Mohideen, M.HSc. (TESL)
- The Internal Landscape and the Existential Agony of Women in Anjana Appachana’s Novel LISTENING NOW, A Doctoral Dissertation ...
M. Poonkodi, Ph.D.
- Trends and Spatial Patterns of Crime in India - A Case Study of a District in India ...
M. Jayamala,, Ph.D.
- The Trading Community in Early Tamil Society Up To 900 AD ...
R. Jeyasurya, M.A., M.Phil., Ph.D.
- A Study of Auxiliaries in the Old and the Middle Tamil ...
A.Boologarambai, M.A., Ph.D.
- History of Growth and Reforms of British Military Administration in India, 1848-1949 ...
Hemalatha, M.A., M.Phil.
- Language of Mass Media: A Study Based on Malayalam Broadcasts - A Doctoral Dissertation ...
K. Parameswaran, Ph.D.
- Form and Function of Disorders in Verbal Narratives - A Doctoral Dissertation ...
Kandala Srinivasacharya, Ph.D.
- Status Marking in Tamil - A Ph.D. Dissertation ...
P. Perumalsamy, Ph.D.
- LANGUAGE AND POWER IN COMMUNICATION ...
Editors: Jennifer M. Bayer, Ph.D., and Pushpa Pai, Ph.D.
- Onomatopoeia in Tamil ...
V. Gnanasundaram, Ph.D.
- Linguistics and Literature ...
C.Shunmugom, Ph.D., and C. Sivashanmugam, Ph.D., V. Thayalan, Ph.D. and C. Sivakumar, Ph.D. (Editors)
- Translation: New Dimensions ...
C.Shunmugom, Ph.D., and C. Sivashanmugam, Ph.D., Editors
- Language of Headlines in Kannada Dailies ...
M. N. Leelavathi, Ph.D.
- Cooperative Learning Incorporating Computer-Mediated Communication: Participation, Perceptions, and Learning Outcomes in a Deaf Education Classroom ...
Michelle Pandian, M.S.
The Effects of Age on the Ability to Learn English As a Second Language ...
Mariam Dadabhai, B.A. Hons.
- A STUDY OF THE SKILLS OF READING COMPREHENSION IN ENGLISH DEVELOPED BY STUDENTS OF STANDARD IX IN THE SCHOOLS IN TUTICORIN DISTRICT, TAMILNADU ...
A. Joycilin Shermila, Ph.D.
- A Socio-Pragmatic Comparative Study of Ostensible Invitations in English and Farsi ...
Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan, Ph.D.
- ADVANCED WRITING - A COURSE TEXTBOOK ...
Parviz Birjandi, Ph.D.
Seyyed Mohammad Alavi, Ph.D.
Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan, Ph.D.
- TEXT FAMILIARITY, READING TASKS, AND ESP TEST PERFORMANCE: A STUDY ON IRANIAN LEP AND NON-LEP UNIVERSITY STUDENTS - A DOCTORAL DISSERTATION ...
Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan, Ph.D.
- A STUDY ON THE LEARNING PROCESS OF ENGLISH
BY HIGHER SECONDARY STUDENTS
WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO DHARMAPURI DISTRICT IN TAMILNADU ...
K. Chidambaram, Ph.D.
- SPEAKING STRATEGIES TO OVERCOME COMMUNICATION DIFFICULTIES IN THE TARGET LANGUAGE SITUATION - BANGLADESHIS IN NEW ZEALAND ...
Harunur Rashid Khan
- THE PROBLEMS IN LEARNING MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS IN ENGLISH AT HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL ...
Chandra Bose, Ph.D. Candidate
- THE ROLE OF VISION IN LANGUAGE LEARNING
- in Children with Moderate to Severe Disabilities ...
Martha Low, Ph.D.
- SANSKRIT TO ENGLISH TRANSLATOR ...
S. Aparna, M.Sc.
- A LINGUISTIC STUDY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE CURRICULUM AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL IN BANGLADESH - A COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT by
Kamrul Hasan, Ph.D.
- COMMUNICATION VIA EYE AND FACE in Indian Contexts by
M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
VIA GESTURE: A STUDY OF INDIAN CONTEXTS by M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
- CIEFL Occasional
Papers in Linguistics,
- Language, Thought
and Disorder - Some Classic Positions by
M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
- English in India:
Loyalty and Attitudes
by Annika Hohenthal
- Language In Science
by M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
- Vocabulary Education
by B. Mallikarjun, Ph.D.
- A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF HINDI
by V. Geethakumary, Ph.D.
- LANGUAGE OF ADVERTISEMENTS
by Sandhya Nayak, Ph.D.
- An Introduction to TESOL:
Methods of Teaching English
to Speakers of Other Languages
by M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
- Transformation of
into Indexing Language:
Kannada - A Case Study
by B. A. Sharada, Ph.D.
- How to Learn
by M.S.Thirumalai, Ph.D.
- Verbal Communication
with CP Children
by Shyamala Chengappa, Ph.D.
and M.S.Thirumalai, Ph.D.
- Bringing Order
to Linguistic Diversity
- Language Planning in
the British Raj by
Ranjit Singh Rangila,
M. S. Thirumalai,
and B. Mallikarjun
- E-mail your articles and book-length reports in Microsoft Word to firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Contributors from South Asia may send their articles to
Central Institute of Indian Languages,
Mysore 570006, India or e-mail to email@example.com.
- PLEASE READ THE GUIDELINES GIVEN IN HOME PAGE IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE LIST OF CONTENTS.
- Your articles and booklength reports should be written following the APA, MLA, LSA, or IJDL Stylesheet.
- The Editorial Board has the right to accept, reject, or suggest modifications to the articles submitted for publication, and to make suitable stylistic adjustments. High quality, academic integrity, ethics and morals are expected from the authors and discussants.
Copyright © 2009
M. S. Thirumalai
Life History of Buddha as Reflected in Hermann Hesse's Siddhartha
J . Santhosh Priyaa
A Historical Novel
The novel Siddhartha written by Hermann Hesse, a German writer and Nobel Prize winner, mirrors the life of Buddha. Hesse opines that the core of man's existence is to unfold himself and to be himself, through the protagonist Siddhartha. According to M.H. Abrahms, "The historical novel not only takes its setting and some character and events from history, but makes the historical events and issue crucial for the central character"(194).
In the novel, Siddhartha, a Brahmin's son, who wants to be enlightened meets Buddha and His preaching helps him to take a right path to achieve his goal. A parallel is drawn between the Buddha's disciple and Siddhartha's friend Govinda.
The plot of Siddhartha was sketched from the incidents in Buddha's life. Hesse has added the pads of creativity to mould the character Siddhartha. Before renunciation, Buddha's name was "Siddhartha". When the etymology indicates that in Sanskrit, 'Siddha' means 'attained'; 'artha' means 'wealth' or 'meaning'. It refers to the "one who had attained his goal" (Misra 116).
As the success of a man lies in his achievement and as the central figure desires to attain Nirvana like Buddha did at a young age, Hesse named his hero as Siddhartha. Though Siddhartha had a healthy and happy childhood, "… restless thoughts came flowing to him from the river" (Siddhartha 5).
Slowly it is revealed to the reader that the quest for the self is intrinsic in Siddhartha. So he opted to live a detached life in the forest with the ascetics called Samanas. He mastered the art of ejaculating the Self. As he was unable to find something worthy, he quit the life of a Samana too. After conversing with Buddha at Jetavana grove, he decided not to follow any doctrine so as to achieve Self-Realization and to seek salvation in his own way like the Buddha. He plunged into the ecstasy of Samsara for a period of twenty years. Later he gave up pleasures and returned to Vasudeva, a ferryman and spent his time for the next twenty years by the river. Finally he got illuminated and then began illuminate his friend Govinda.
The historical Buddha was a prince and his childhood was happy. As soon as he realized the impermanency of life through disease and death, he renounced his parents, wife and son and went in search of the Ultimate Truth. He found out that ultimate nirvana was to be obtained through his own efforts, not through the practice of any ritual or learning under the tutelage of ascetics. He attained Nirvana under the "Bothi" tree. He preached the Four Noble Truth and Eight Fold Path.
Our protagonist Siddhartha's father compares Siddhartha as "the prince among Brahmins" (Siddhartha 4), who had a happy childhood. He rebelled against the ritualistic Brahminical approach. Siddhartha forsook Kamala when she was pregnant. He realized his folly of indulging in Samsara under the mango tree. He realized Truth from the river.
The Structure of the Novel
The novel is divided into two parts. The first part consists of four chapters. The second part consists of eight chapters. This structure represents the Four Noble Truth as the first part and the Eight Fold Path as the second part.
This is only the beginning part of the article. PLEASE CLICK HERE TO READ THE ARTICLE IN PRINTER-FRIENDLY VERSION.
The Influence of First Language Grammar (L1) on the English Language (L2) Writing of Tamil School Students: A Case Study from Malaysia | Economic Hardship and Emotional Humiliation in Mulk Raj Anand's Untouchable | Effects of Using Urdu Dictionary as a Teaching Tool for Teaching Urdu in Urdu Language Classroom in Pakistan | Acoustic Correlates of Stress in Mizo, a Tonal Language | Racism and the American Dream in John Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men | Stimulating Language Strategies through Thinking - Help for Slow Learners | Masses as the True Makers of History - Analysis of the Play The Trial of Dedan Mimathi | Personal and Labour Market Environment Factors in English for Employability: A Case Study of KSA | A Study of the Reported Language Skill Development Strategies of the Student Teachers in Pakistan | Strategies for Communication Skills Development | Schema in Learning | Achieving Professional Goals: Use of a Mixed Discourse in Interviews | The Reality in Langston Hughes' Poems | Techniques to Teach Vocabulary to Regional Medium Students | Life History of Buddha as Reflected in Hermann Hesse's Siddhartha | Technique as Voyage of Discovery: A Study of the Techniques in Dante's Paradiso | Some Gaps in the Current Studies of Reading in Second/Foreign Language Learning | Unmasking Student Competence: Using Computers to Teach Writing | Feminist Literary Criticism | Amy Tan and Chinese American Literature | An Acoustic Analysis of Glottal Fricative [h] at Word Medial and Final Positions:
A Comparison between Regular and Non-regular Urdu Speakers of Pakistan | Teaching Writing Skills | Self-esteem of Institutionalised Elderly Women in Coimbatore - A Case History | An Assessment on Women's Work Participation and Economic Equality | Economics of Crime : A Comparative Analysis of the Socio-Economic Conditions of Convicted Female and Male Criminality in Selected Prisons in Tamil Nadu | A PRINT VERSION OF ALL THE PAPERS OF APRIL 2010 ISSUE IN BOOK FORMAT | HOME PAGE of April 2010 Issue | HOME PAGE | CONTACT EDITOR
J. Santhosh Priyaa
Department of English
P.S.G.R. Krishnammal College for Women
- Send your articles
as an attachment
to your e-mail to
- Please ensure that your name, academic degrees, institutional affiliation and institutional address, and your e-mail address are all given in the first page of your article. Also include a declaration that your article or work submitted for publication in LANGUAGE IN INDIA is an original work by you and that you have duly acknolwedged the work or works of others you either cited or used in writing your articles, etc. Remember that by maintaining academic integrity we not only do the right thing but also help the growth, development and recognition of Indian scholarship.