Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow

Volume 12 : 5 May 2012
ISSN 1930-2940

Managing Editor: M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
Editors: B. Mallikarjun, Ph.D.
         Sam Mohanlal, Ph.D.
         B. A. Sharada, Ph.D.
         A. R. Fatihi, Ph.D.
         Lakhan Gusain, Ph.D.
         Jennifer Marie Bayer, Ph.D.
         S. M. Ravichandran, Ph.D.
         G. Baskaran, Ph.D.
         L. Ramamoorthy, Ph.D.
Assistant Managing Editor: Swarna Thirumalai, M.A.


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M. S. Thirumalai

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Impact of Commercialization on Language with Special Reference to Urdu Lexicon
Doctoral Dissertation

Somana Fatima, Ph.D.

Urdu is one of the Indo-Aryan Languages which has developed from Sanskrit through Khari Boli and Šaurseni Prakrit. The development of Urdu took place after 1000 A.D. which marks the end of Apabhramsa Period. (Kelkar, 1968). There were certain political and socio-cultural influences which favored and prepared background for the evolution of Urdu in India. Its proper development started, only when Muslim entered Delhi from Punjab in 1193 A.D., and made the city capital of their empire. It has adopted certain elements from Arabic and Persian Languages, example phonological features, grammatical features and a considerable part of lexicon. (Beg, 1986)

Urdu is closely related to Hindi in phonology and grammar. As a language of ‘mixed’ background, Urdu manifests diversity of problems at various structural levels out of which its phonology requires a special treatment as it has socio-linguistic and socio-cultural implications. Urdu is not just a language specified in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution; it is widely used in India. Its speakers are spread over a number of states in India including Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and far off states like Karnataka and Maharashtra. It is the state language of Jammu and Kashmir in India and the official language of Pakistan. In Manorama Yearbook it is given that Urdu is spoken by more than twenty-eight million people in India.

Urdu employs the Perso-Arabic script. It has produced extensive literature. Its idioms fascinate even those who know it marginally. One obvious reason for this is its rich and glorious past of our country. Urdu assimilated words from Arabic, Persian and Turkish apart from a large number of words from English and other languages (Kelkar, 1968, p. 20).

Urdu basically is a Khadi Boli Idiom which developed in the North India especially in and around Delhi by the end of the twelfth century A.D. This was the time when due to the settlement of Muslims comprising Turks, Afghans and Iranians; and establishment of the Muslim rule in Delhi, certain socio-political, cultural and linguistic changes were taking place in North India. It was during this period that Khadi Boli came under the influence of new linguistic and cultural forces and eventually became a full-fledged language called ‘Urdu’. Though the structure of Urdu is purely Indo-Aryan, its vocabulary is largely derived from Persian and Arabic and it is written in an ‘adaptation’ of the Perso-Arabic script. (Beg, 1986)

This is only the beginning part of the Doctoral Dissertation. PLEASE CLICK HERE TO READ THE DISSERTATION IN PRINTER-FRIENDLY VERSION.

Somana Fatima, Ph.D.

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