Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow

Volume 12 : 9 September 2012
ISSN 1930-2940

Managing Editor: M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
Editors: B. Mallikarjun, Ph.D.
         Sam Mohanlal, Ph.D.
         B. A. Sharada, Ph.D.
         A. R. Fatihi, Ph.D.
         Lakhan Gusain, Ph.D.
         Jennifer Marie Bayer, Ph.D.
         S. M. Ravichandran, Ph.D.
         G. Baskaran, Ph.D.
         L. Ramamoorthy, Ph.D.
Assistant Managing Editor: Swarna Thirumalai, M.A.


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Measuring the Whole Word Complexity in Tulu Speaking Children between 3 to 4 Years of Age

Anuradha Shastry, BASLP, Shruthi Nayak, MASLP,
Veena K.D., Ph.D. and Sunila John, MASLP


The utility of whole world complexity measures in studying the phonological acquisition is gaining importance in child language development research. The present study aims to explore phonological whole word complexity measures (PMLU, PWP & PWC) in sixty, 3 - 4 year old Tulu speaking children stratified into four age bands. The whole word complexity measures were estimated on picture naming task. A statistical significant increase in scores was noted amongst the four age groups for all the whole word complexity measures considered for the study. The comparison of scores in Tulu with earlier research in Kannada indicated a lower score, which was attributed to difference in the syllable structure, sample size and variation in the total number of segments attempted by the children. These measures have the potential to discover aspects of phonological acquisition that have been missed due to the focus on segments. Hence, normative data should be established specific to a language for different age groups using larger sample size.

Key Words: Phonology, PMLU, PWP, PWC


Phonology is the basic unit of speech. Hence, only phonemes were given emphasis in the phonological assessment. The traditional phonological assessment procedures included formal articulation tests, documentation of phonemic inventories and assessment of the phonological processes. Phonological assessment has involved both independent and relational analysis. However in clinical practice, a detailed phonological analysis is time consuming and tedious as they are focused mainly on segmental analysis. While the phonological acquisition has mostly focused on the segmental development, recently the attention has shifted to a broader view point through the analysis of syllables and whole word productions as words are being considered as the basic unit of analysis (Ingram & Ingram, 2001). This paper analyses such whole word complexity measures which are essential for the assessment of phonology at word level.

This is only the beginning part of the article. PLEASE CLICK HERE TO READ THE ARTICLE IN PRINTER-FRIENDLY VERSION.

Anuradha Shastry, BASLP (Corresponding Author)
Father Muller College of Speech and Hearing
A unit of Father Muller Charitable Institutions
Kankanady, Mangalore – 575002
Karnataka, India

Shruthi Nayak, MASLP
Department of ENT
M S Ramaiah Memorial Hospital
New B E L Road, M S Ramaiah Nagar, MSRIT Post
Bangalore - 560 054
Karnataka, India

Veena K. D., Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Department of Speech and Hearing
Manipal College of Allied Health Sciences, Manipal University
Karnataka, India

Sunila John, MASLP
Assistant Professor, Department of Speech and Hearing
Manipal College of Allied Health Sciences, Manipal University
Karnataka, India

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