Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow

Volume 12 : 9 September 2012
ISSN 1930-2940

Managing Editor: M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
Editors: B. Mallikarjun, Ph.D.
         Sam Mohanlal, Ph.D.
         B. A. Sharada, Ph.D.
         A. R. Fatihi, Ph.D.
         Lakhan Gusain, Ph.D.
         Jennifer Marie Bayer, Ph.D.
         S. M. Ravichandran, Ph.D.
         G. Baskaran, Ph.D.
         L. Ramamoorthy, Ph.D.
Assistant Managing Editor: Swarna Thirumalai, M.A.


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M. S. Thirumalai

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Revisiting English Education amidst Various Local Languages: Situation in Manipur State

Thenkhogin Haokip, Ph.D. Scholar


Modern education started by the colonial powers during nineteenth century in the state of Manipur has made tremendous progress. It has also led to the introduction of English language and English education in the state. The present article looks into the present status of English Education in the state – the governmental as well as the private institutions, and the use of English language in the state. This paper deals with the state of English language in the state of Manipur through the study of English education along with the educational status of various languages in the state. While deeper observation revealed the pathetic conditions of some governmental schools, the gaps were mended by the private schools. English has played an important role in the written languages of the different communities in the state. It has acted as a link language for most tribals in the hills. The diversity of languages in Manipur has also favored English to be in the vital spotlight both in written and spoken. Despite many difficulties, English education is still in demand and is progressing both in the hills and the valley. English as a subject as well as a medium of instruction has gained best preference in the state. Governmental reports, articles, write-ups including the author’s own personal observations and experiences beside various other secondary sources have been consulted as sources in formation and analysis of this article.

Key words: English Education, English Language, Tribal Languages and Dialects, Meiteilon, Manipur.


Language constitutes a basic element of Human Development. Language constitutes the common thread and means that links all the aspects of human development . Educational status clearly depicts the level of development of the people. Education is one of the best tools to attain language skill. This paper deals with the state of English language in the state of Manipur through the study of English education along with the educational status of various languages in the state. To Anvita Abbi (2004) , the most important language from the Socio-economic and educational point of view is English, which ironically, is not listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution. Cynthia Groff (2003) had stated that the question of which language to use for the new nation sparked much discussion during the move for Indian independence in the light of the linguistic diversity in India. Continuing the use of English for official purposes was one option and many colonized nations have chosen that route at independence.

This is only the beginning part of the article. PLEASE CLICK HERE TO READ THE ARTICLE IN PRINTER-FRIENDLY VERSION.

Thenkhogin Haokip, Ph.D. Scholar
Department of Education
Assam University

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