Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow

Volume 10 : 11 November 2010
ISSN 1930-2940

Managing Editor: M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
Editors: B. Mallikarjun, Ph.D.
         Sam Mohanlal, Ph.D.
         B. A. Sharada, Ph.D.
         A. R. Fatihi, Ph.D.
         Lakhan Gusain, Ph.D.
         K. Karunakaran, Ph.D.
         Jennifer Marie Bayer, Ph.D.
         S. M. Ravichandran, Ph.D.
         G. Baskaran, Ph.D.



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Copyright © 2010
M. S. Thirumalai


Relationship between Multiple Intelligence Categories
and Learning Styles of Students in Pakistan

Khush Bakht Hina
Muhammad Ajmal,Ph.D.
Fazalur Rahman
Nabi Bux Jumani, Ph.D.


The study designed to build on foundations laid down by other investigators particularly Gardner (1993), Linda & Campbell (1999), Chen, Krechevsky & Viens (1998). This was co relational in nature, and used survey format. The study conducted in six girls' secondary schools of Islamabad. 354 students of grade X participated in the study. The modified version of multiple intelligence assessment scale and modified Version of VAK learning styles inventory used as instrument. The finding revealed that different learners have different type of intelligence learning styles. The study did not found any relationship between learning styles and multiple intelligence.

The results showed that mostly students have auditory and kinesthetic learning style and it has relationship with multiple intelligence categories. The study recommended that curriculum may be designed keeping in view students' intelligence categories and learning styles.

Key words: Multiple intelligence; learning styles; VAK learning inventory; multiple intelligence inventory


The theory of multiple intelligences was developed in 1983 by Dr. Howard Gardner, professor of education at Harvard University. It suggests that the traditional notion of intelligence, based on I.Q. testing, is far too limited. Instead, Dr. Gardner proposed eight different intelligences to account for a broader range of human potential in children and adults (Armstrong, 2009).

In Pakistani context, schools and culture focus most of their attention on linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligence. However, the theory of multiple intelligence says that we should also place equal attention on individuals who show contributions in the other intelligences: the artists, architects, musicians, naturalists, designers, dancers, therapists, entrepreneurs, and others who enrich the world in which we live.

Unfortunately, many children who have these contributions don't receive much support for them in school. Many of these kids, in fact, end up being labeled underachievers, when their unique ways of thinking and learning aren't addressed by a heavily linguistic or logical-mathematical classroom.

The theory of multiple intelligences proposes a major transformation in the way our schools are run. It suggests that teachers be trained to present their lessons in a wide variety of ways using music, cooperative learning, art activities, role play, multimedia, field trips, inner reflection, and much more.

Theoretical Framework of Multiple Intelligences

Multiple Intelligence are tools for learning and problem solving Creating opportunities for all students, by enriching the classroom through multiple techniques and assessment forms, develops students and brings out their strengths. Gardner (1993, 1998) uses eight different criteria to judge whether candidate ability can be counted as intelligence. The criteria consist of each of the following:

a. Potential isolation by brain damage.
b. Existence of savants, prodigies, and other exceptional individuals.
c. An identifiable core set of operations-basic kind of information-processing operations or mechanisms that deal with one specific kind of input.
d. A distinctive developmental history, along with a definite set of "end-state" performances.
e. An evolutionary history and evolutionary plausibility.
f. Support from experimental and psychological tasks.
g. Support form psychometric findings.
h. Susceptibility to encoding from a symbol system.

This is only the beginning part of the article. PLEASE CLICK HERE TO READ THE ARTICLE IN PRINTER-FRIENDLY VERSION.

Implementing Explicit Grammatical Instruction in Thailand Schools | Nature of Sentence Intonation in Kannada, Tulu and Konkani | Language and Gender - Linguistic Analysis of Intermediate English Textbooks in Pakistan | Development of Punjabi-Hindi Aligned Parallel Corpus from Web Using Machine Translation | Paralinguistic and Non-Verbal Props in Second-Language Use: A Study of Icheoku and Masquerade in Nigeria | Economic Perspectives and Life-style Characteristics of the Aged Population in Tamil Nadu, India | Redefining Secularism - An Analysis of John Updike's Terrorist and Mohsin Hamid's The Reluctant Fundamentalist as Post-9/11 Novels | Reduplication in Bengali Language | Development of Time-Compressed Speech Test for Children between 8 - 12 Years of Age in Telugu | Bridging the Gap - The Potential of Contrastive Rhetoric in Teaching L2 Writing | ELT in Yemen and India - The Need for Remedial Measures | Relationship between Multiple Intelligence Categories and Learning Styles of Students in Pakistan | Internet as an Educational Resource in Vocabulary Instruction | The Effectiveness of Technology in Teaching Study Skills | A Study of the Comparative Elements in the Poetry of Keats and Ghani Khan | Sentence Pattern Method - A New Approach for Teaching Spoken English for Tamil/Indian/EFL Learners | Enhancing Language Skills Using Learn to Speak English Software in Engineering Students of Andhra Pradesh | Problems in Teaching of English Language at the Primary Level in District Kohat, NWFP, Pakistan | An Appraisal of the Practicum - Finding the Gaps between Theory and Practice in Teacher Training Institutions in Pakistan | A Study of B.Ed. Students' Attitude Towards Using Internet in Vellore District, Tamilnadu, India, Masters Dissertation | Politics of Sambalpuri or Kosali as a Dialect of Oriya in Orissa | A Six-Step Approach to Teaching Poetry Incorporating the Four Skills | Lexis of a Suicidal | A Case Review of Tamil Diglossia | Comparison of Markedness of Lexical Semantic Abilities in Normal Children and Children with Hearing Impairment | Social Effects and Other Impediments in Teaching Literature | Aligning the Connotations of Love and Freedom in the Novels of Iris Murdoch | Spiritual Communication and Managerial Effectiveness | A PRINT VERSION OF ALL THE PAPERS OF NOVEMBER, 2010 ISSUE IN BOOK FORMAT. | HOME PAGE of November 2010 Issue | HOME PAGE | CONTACT EDITOR

Khush Bakht Hina, M.Phil.
National University of Modern Languages
Islamabad 44000

Muhammad Ajmal, Ph.D.
Department of Distance, Nonformal and Continuing Education
Allama Iqbal Open University
Islamabad 44000

Fazalur Rahman, M.Phil.,M.Sc., M.Ed.
Department of Early Childhood & Elementary Teacher Education
Allama Iqbal Open University
Islamabad 44000

Nabi Bux Jumani, Ph.D.
Department of Education
International Islamic University
Islamabad 44000

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